Background: Cancer is the second leading cause of death among men and women and a highly prevalent cause of mortality among women. Having sexual relations at a young age, having multiple sex partners, multiple pregnancies, long-term use of birth control pills, receiving a kidney transplant, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are the major risk factors of cervical cancer. Although the risk of cervical cancer has recently increased, its mortality rate has declined. This study aimed to review cervical cancer, its epidemiology, etiology, treatment methods, and various chemical plant- and microorganism-derived drugs.
Material and Methods: Complete information collection was performed by reading most of the available articles.
Results: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the main cause of cervical cancer, and the best way to prevent it is vaccination between the ages of 9 and 11 years, screening women and, more importantly, educating girls. One of the easiest methods to screen for this disease is Pap tests and HPV genotyping (high-risk strains 16 and 18). Cervical cancer is asymptomatic in the early stages, but after spreading to other parts of the body, it causes symptoms, such as bleeding, pelvic pain, and dyspareunia. Cervical cancer treatment is based on the stage of the disease and the involvement of other parts of the body. In general, however, surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and hysterectomy are among the common treatments for cervical cancer. Each of these methods has its side effects; for instance, chemotherapy destroys healthy as well as cancer cells.
Conclusion: Nowadays, with molecular knowledge, new drugs have been developed that are free from the side effects of cancer treatment methods and only affect cancer cells. All the results have been reviewed and compiled.
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