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Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry


ISSN (Print): 1568-0266
ISSN (Online): 1873-4294

Review Article

Recent Advances in the Multistep Continuous Preparation of APIs and Fine Chemicals

Author(s): Pedro P. de Castro*, Gabriel M.F. Batista, Giovanni W. Amarante, Timothy J. Brocksom and Kleber T. de Oliveira*

Volume 23, Issue 11, 2023

Published on: 27 April, 2023

Page: [970 - 989] Pages: 20

DOI: 10.2174/1568026623666230331083734

Price: $65


Over the last two decades, with the advent of continuous flow technologies, continuous processes have emerged as a major area in organic synthesis. In this context, continuous flow processes have been increasing in the preparation of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) and fine chemicals, such as complex synthetic intermediates, agrochemicals, and fragrances. Thus, the development of multi-step protocols has attracted special interest from the academic and industrial chemistry communities. In addition to the beneficial aspects intrinsically associated with continuous processes (e.g., waste reduction, optimal heat transfer, improved safety, and the possibility to work under harsh reaction conditions and with more dangerous reagents), these protocols also allow a rapid increase in molecular complexity. Moreover, in telescoped multi-step processes, isolation and purification steps are generally avoided or, if necessary, carried out in-line, presenting an important economy of time, solvents, reagents, and labor. Last, important synthetic strategies such as photochemical and electrochemical reactions are compatible with flow processes and are delivering relevant advances to the synthetic approaches. In this review, a general overview of the fundamentals of continuous flow processes is presented. Recent examples of multi-step continuous processes for the preparation of fine chemicals, including telescoped and end-to-end processes, are discussed, pointing out the possible advantages and/or limitations of each of these methodologies.

Keywords: Continuous flow, Telescoped syntheses, End-to-end, APIs, Agrochemicals, Fragrances, Fine chemicals.

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