Background: Obstacle avoidance path planning is an important parameter of robot manipulators. Path planning can directly affect the working efficiency of the manipulator.
Objective: This study aims to summarize the optimization design method from a large number of literature and propose a new optimization design method to make the planned obstacle avoidance path of the manipulator shorter and smoother.
Methods: The forward and inverse kinematics of the redundant manipulator is solved. Secondly, the obstacle and the robot manipulator envelope are simplified for collision detection. Then, the ant colony algorithm is improved by adding an obstacle environment to the construction of the heuristic function and dynamically adjusting the heuristic function factor to make the shortest path distance planned by the algorithm. Finally, the worst ant colony is added to the pheromone update to avoid the algorithm falling into the local optimal solution.
Results: Through experiments and comparative studies, the optimized design process shows that the path planned by the improved ant colony algorithm has obvious advantages of shorter path distance and smoother path distance, which verifies the rationality of the improved algorithm.
Conclusion: This method optimizes the convergence speed of the ant colony algorithm and avoids the ant colony algorithm from falling into the local optimal solution, which is of great significance for improving the obstacle avoidance path planning problem of a redundant manipulator with a degree of freedom.