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Current Drug Therapy


ISSN (Print): 1574-8855
ISSN (Online): 2212-3903

Review Article

Recent Progresses on Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, Therapeutic Modalities, and Management of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disorder

Author(s): Mahdi Barazesh*, Sajad Jalili*, Morteza Akhzari, Fouzieyeh Faraji and Ebrahim Khorramdin

Volume 19, Issue 1, 2024

Published on: 15 May, 2023

Page: [20 - 48] Pages: 29

DOI: 10.2174/1574885518666230417111247

Price: $65


Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently the utmost common chronic liver disorder that happens through all age groups and is identified to occur in 14%-30% of the general population, demonstrating a critical and grossing clinical issue because of the growing incidence of obesity and overweight. From the histological aspect, it looks like alcoholic liver damage, but it happens in patients who avoid remarkable alcohol usage. NAFLD comprises a broad spectrum, ranging from benign hepatocellular steatosis to inflammatory nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), different levels of fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Patients with NASH are more susceptible to more rapid progression to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. There is no single factor that drives proceeding from simple steatosis to NASH. However, a combination of multi parameters such as genetic background, gut microflora, intake of high fat/ fructose dietary contents or methionine/choline-deficient diet, and consequently accumulated hepatocellular lipids mainly including triglycerides and also other bio-analytes, such as free fatty acids, cholesterol, and phospholipids display a crucial role in disease promotion. NAFLD is related to overweight and insulin resistance (IR) and is regarded as the hepatic presentation of the metabolic syndrome, an amalgamation of medical statuses such as hyperlipidemia, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and visceral obesity. Despite the increasing prevalence of this disease, which imposes a remarkable clinical burden, most affected patients remain undiagnosed in a timely manner, largely related to the asymptomatic entity of NAFLD patients and the unavailability of accurate and efficient noninvasive diagnostic tests. However, liver biopsy is considered a gold standard for NAFLD diagnosis, but due to being expensive and invasiveness is inappropriate for periodic disease screening. Some noninvasive monitoring approaches have been established recently for NAFLD assessment. In addition to the problem of correct disease course prediction, no effective therapeutic modalities are approved for disease treatment. Imaging techniques can commonly validate the screening and discrimination of NAFLD; nevertheless, staging the disease needs a liver biopsy. The present therapeutic approaches depend on weight loss, sports activities, and dietary modifications, although different insulin- sensitizing drugs, antioxidants, and therapeutic agents seem hopeful. This review aims to focus on the current knowledge concerning epidemiology, pathogenesis, and different biochemical experiments and imaging modalities applied to diagnose the different grades of NAFLD and its management, as well as new data about pharmacological therapies for this disorder.

Keywords: Dyslipidemia, hepatocellular fibrosis, insulin resistance, liver transplant, metabolic syndrome, NAFLD.

Graphical Abstract
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