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Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry


ISSN (Print): 1568-0266
ISSN (Online): 1873-4294

Review Article

Employing “Red Flags” to Fight the Most Neglected Diseases: Nitroaromatic as Still Suitable Tools to Treat Human and Veterinary Parasitosis

Author(s): Daniela Gonçales Galasse Rando*, Helena Gabrielle de Oliveira Costa, Thais Fernanda Heitor, Josué de Moraes and Thais Fernanda Amorim Pavani

Volume 23, Issue 9, 2023

Published on: 15 May, 2023

Page: [816 - 832] Pages: 17

DOI: 10.2174/1568026623666230427114840

Price: $65


Nitroaromatic compounds have been used for treating parasitic diseases since the 1960s. Pharmacological alternatives to treat them are under observation. However, for the most neglected diseases, such as those caused by worms and less known protozoans, nitro compounds are still among the drugs of choice, despite their well-known collateral effects. In this review, we describe the chemistry and the uses of the still most employed nitroaromatic compounds for treating parasitosis caused by worms or lesser-known protozoans. We also describe their application as veterinary drugs. The most accepted mechanism of action seems to be the same, leading to collateral effects. For this reason, a special session was dedicated to discussing toxicity, carcinogenicity, and mutagenesis, as well as the most acceptable aspects of the known structure-activity/toxicity relationships involving nitroaromatic compounds. It employed the SciFindern search tool from the American Chemical Society in the search for the most relevant bibliography within the field, exploring keyword expressions such as “NITRO COMPOUNDS” and “BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY” (within Abstracts or Keywords) and concepts related to parasites, pharmacology and toxicology. The results were classified according to the chemical classes of nitro compounds, being the most relevant studies regarding journal impact and interest of the described results chosen to be discussed. From the found literature, it is easy to notice that nitro compounds, especially the nitroaromatic ones, are still widely used in antiparasitic therapy, despite their toxicity. They also are the best starting point in the search for new active compounds.

Keywords: Helminths, Anti-parasitic, Worms, Protozoans, Nitroaromatic, Structure-activity relationships, Veterinary drugs.

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