Generic placeholder image

Recent Advances in Electrical & Electronic Engineering


ISSN (Print): 2352-0965
ISSN (Online): 2352-0973

General Research Article

A Comparative Study of the Performances of the LQR Regulator versus the PI Regulator for the Control of a Battery Storage System

Author(s): Achraf Nouri*, Aymen Lachheb and Lilia El Amraoui

Volume 16, Issue 8, 2023

Published on: 26 May, 2023

Page: [884 - 894] Pages: 11

DOI: 10.2174/2352096516666230427142102

Price: $65


Background: This paper is consecrated to the development of a new approach to control a bidirectional DC-DC converter dedicated to battery storage systems by applying an optimal control based on a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) combined with an artificial neural network (ANN) algorithm. A state representation of the Buck-boost converter is performed. Then the ANN-LQR control strategy is compared to a classical control based on the proportional-integral controller combined with an ANN algorithm. The ANN algorithm generates the reference charging or discharging current based on a comparison between the power generated and the power consumed. In order to obtain an accurate comparison, two identical systems are designed, each consisting of a photovoltaic system optimized by an incremental conductance algorithm (INC) that powers a dynamic load and a backup storage system consisting of a lithium-ion battery. A management and protection algorithm is developed to protect the batteries from overcharge and deep discharge and to manage the load availability on the DC bus. The simulation results show an improvement in the performances of the storage system by the ANN-LQR control compared to the ANN-PI method and an increase in the stability, accuracy, efficiency of the system is observed.

Photovoltaic (PV) energy is one of the most promising technologies for combating climate change and meeting the urgent need for green renewable energy and long-term development. PV energy generation has a number of advantages: Solar energy is limitless and available anywhere on the planet. However, photovoltaic energy is intermittent and depends on meteorological conditions; also, the energy consumed is unpredictable. For this reason, a storage system is necessary to overcome these problems.

Objective: The objective of this study is to develop an optimal control using a Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) combined with a neural network algorithm (ANN) to improve the performance of an electrical energy storage system and compare the results obtained with the classical control based on the PI regulator.

Methods: The state representation of the bidirectional Buck-boost converter was performed in order to apply the optimal control and determine the gain K and the ANN algorithm allowed to determine the charge and discharge current according to a comparison between the power produced and consumed.

Results: The simulation results obtained by two control methods can be used to compare and select the appropriate control method to achieve optimal efficiency of the storage system.

Conclusion: The combined ANN-LQR technique offer better performances and stability of the installation compared to the ANN-PI controller.

Keywords: Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR), PI regulator, ANN algorithm, batteries energy storage system, incremental conductance algorithm (INC), management and protection algorithm.

Graphical Abstract
A. Moubarak, G. El-Saady, and E.N.A. Ibrahim, "Battery energy storage for variable speed photovoltaic water pumping system", ARPN J. Eng. Appl. Sci, vol. 13, no. 23, pp. 8970-8982, 2018.
S. Alsadi, and T. Khatib, "Photovoltaic power systems optimization research status: A review of criteria, constrains, models, techniques, and software tools", Appl. Sci., vol. 8, no. 10, p. 1761, 2018.
N.H. Samrat, N.B. Ahmad, I.A. Choudhury, and Z.B. Taha, "Modeling, control, and simulation of battery storage photovoltaic-wave energy hybrid renewable power generation systems for island electrification in Malaysia", Scientific. World. J., vol. 2014, pp. 1-21, 2014.
[] [PMID: 24892049]
T. Satyanarayana, and R. Dahiya, "Autonomous battery storage energy system control of pv-wind based dc microgrid", Int. J. Ambient Energy, vol. 42, no. 8, pp. 888-894, 2021.
P. Sivaraman, T. Logeswaran, S.J.J.S. Sakthi, and S. Boopathimanikandan, "Design and analysis of sliding mode control for battery charging applications", In International Conference on Mechatronics in Energy and Environment Protection (ICMEEP 2020, vol. 995, Erode, India, 2020, p. 12002
M. Koulali, M. Mankour, K. Negadi, and A. Mezouar, "“Energy management of hybrid power system pv wind and battery based three level converter”, Tecnica Italiana-Italian J", Eng. Sci., vol. 63, no. 2-4, pp. 297-304, 2019.
M.A. Mulla, V.J. Dobariya, R.V. Vamja, and A. Sircar, "Battery charger utilizing coupled inductor based high gain bidirectional DC-DC converter: Analysis, design, and implementation", Eur. J. Electr. Eng., vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 175-184, 2021.
I. Cohen, D. Wetz, S. Veiga, Q. Dong, and J. Heinzel, "Fuzzy logic control of a hybrid energy storage module for naval pulsed power applications", Int. J. Fuzzy Syst., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 3887-3893, 2016.
C.A. Ramos-Paja, J.D. Bastidas-Rodríguez, D. González, S. Acevedo, and J. Peláez-Restrepo, "Design and control of a buck-boost charger-discharger for DC-bus regulation in microgrids", Energies, vol. 10, no. 11, p. 1847, 2017.
T. Sadeq, and C.K. Wai, "Linear quadratic regulator control scheme on hybrid energy storage system", In 2020 IEEE International Conference on Automatic Control and Intelligent Systems (I2CACIS), June 20, 2020, Shah Alam, Malaysia, 2020, pp. 219-223
T. Sadeq, C.K. Wai, and E. Morris, "Current control of battery-supercapacitors system for electric vehicles based on rule-base linear quadratic regulator", Adv. sci. technol. eng., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 57-65, 2021.
K. Subasinghage, K. Gunawardane, N. Padmawansa, N. Kularatna, and M. Moradian, "Modern supercapacitors technologies and their applicability in mature electrical engineering applications", Energies, vol. 15, no. 20, p. 7752, 2022.
S. Ferahtia, A. Djeroui, T. Mesbahi, A. Houari, S. Zeghlache, H. Rezk, and T. Paul, "Optimal adaptive gain LQR-based energy management strategy for battery–supercapacitor hybrid power system", Energies, vol. 14, no. 6, p. 1660, 2021.
H.S. Ko, T. Niimura, J. Jatskevich, H.C. Kim, and K.Y. Lee, "Power quality control of hybrid wind power generation with battery storage using fuzzy-LQR controller", In IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting, 2004., Denver, CO, USA, 2004, pp. 1721-1727
A. Shaqour, H. Farzaneh, Y. Yoshida, and T. Hinokuma, "Power control and simulation of a building integrated stand-alone hybrid PV-wind-battery system in Kasuga City, Japan", Energy Rep., vol. 6, pp. 1528-1544, 2020.
M. Vellingiri, M. Rawa, S. Alghamdi, A.A. Alhussainy, A.S. Althobiti, M. Calasan, M. Micev, Z.M. Ali, and S.H.E. Abdel Aleem, "Non-linear analysis of novel equivalent circuits of single-diode solar cell models with voltage-dependent resistance", Fractal Fract., vol. 7, no. 1, p. 95, 2023.
P. Changmai, S. Deka, S. Kumar, T.S. Babu, B. Aljafari, and B. Nastasi, "A critical review on the estimation techniques of the solar PV Cell’s unknown parameters", Energies, vol. 15, no. 19, p. 7212, 2022.
S. Shongwe, and M. Hanif, "Comparative analysis of different single-diode pv modeling methods", IEEE J. Photovolt., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 938-946, 2015.
A. El-Shahat, and S. Sumaiya, "DC-microgrid system design, control, and analysis", Electronics, vol. 8, no. 2, p. 124, 2019.
L. Shang, H. Guo, and W. Zhu, "An improved MPPT control strategy based on incremental conductance algorithm", Prot. Control Mod. Power Syst., vol. 5, no. 1, p. 14, 2020.
P.K. Mishra, and P. Tiwari, "Incremental conductance MPPT in grid connected PV system", Int. J. Eng. Sci. Technol., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 138-145, 2021.
A. Harrison, N.H. Alombah, and N.N.J. de Dieuo, "A new hybrid MPPT based on incremental conductance-integral backstepping controller applied to a PV system under fast-changing operating conditions", Int. J. Photoenergy, vol. 2023, pp. 1-17, 2023.
M.H. Taghvaee, M.A.M. Radzi, S.M. Moosavain, H. Hizam, and M. Hamiruce Marhaban, "A current and future study on non-isolated DC–DC converters for photovoltaic applications", Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 17, pp. 216-227, 2013.
R.H.G. Tan, and L.Y.H. Hoo, "DC-DC converter modeling and simulation using state space approach", In 2015 IEEE Conference on Energy Conversion (CENCON), Johor Bahru, Malaysia, 2015, pp. 42-47
C. Li, Y. Chen, D. Zhou, J. Liu, and J. Zeng, "A high-performance adaptive incremental conductance MPPT algorithm for photovoltaic systems", Energies, vol. 9, no. 4, p. 288, 2016.
M. Csizmadia, M. Kuczmann, and T. Orosz, "A novel control scheme based on exact feedback linearization achieving robust constant voltage for boost converter", Electron., vol. 12, no. 1, p. 57, 2023.
I. Zgarni, and L. ElAmraoui, "Design of optimal control of DFIG-based wind turbine system through linear quadratic regulator", Int. J. Adv. Comput. Sci. Appl., vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 708-716, 2021.
M. Fard, and M. Aldeen, "Linear Quadratic Regulator design for a hybrid photovoltaic-battery system", In 2016 australian control conference (AuCC), newcastle, NSW, Australia, 2016, pp. 347-352
D. Kumar, and S.J. Mija, "Design and performance evaluation of LQR and optimized sliding mode controllers for a class of underactuated nonlinear systems", IFAC-PapersOnLine, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 579-585, 2022.
N. Aouani, and C. Olalla, "Robust LQR control for PWM converters with parameter-dependent Lyapunov functions", Appl. Sci., vol. 10, no. 21, p. 7534, 2020.
A. Mukhatov, N.G.M. Thao, and T.D. Do, "Linear quadratic regulator and fuzzy control for grid-connected photovoltaic systems", Energies, vol. 15, no. 4, p. 1286, 2022.
L.M.S. Hossain, M.A. Hannan, and F.K. Tahia, "Intelligent algorithms and control strategies for battery management system in electric vehicles: Progress, challenges and future outlook", J. Clean. Prod., vol. 292, p. 126044, 2021.
N. Mohammed, and A.M. Saif, "Programmable logic controller based lithium-ion battery management system for accurate state of charge estimation", Comput. Electr. Eng., vol. 93, p. 107306, 2021.
K.W. See, G. Wang, Y. Zhang, Y. Wang, L. Meng, X. Gu, N. Zhang, K.C. Lim, L. Zhao, and B. Xie, "Critical review and functional safety of a battery management system for large-scale lithium-ion battery pack technologies", Int. J. Coal Sci. Technol., vol. 9, no. 1, p. 36, 2022.

Rights & Permissions Print Export Cite as
© 2023 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy