Generic placeholder image

Recent Advances in Electrical & Electronic Engineering


ISSN (Print): 2352-0965
ISSN (Online): 2352-0973

Research Article

Interpolated Implicit Pixel-based Novel Hybrid Approach Towards Image Steganography

Author(s): Ravi Saini*, Kamaldeep Joshi, Khusboo Punyani, Rajkumar Yadav, Rainu Nandal and Deepika Kumari

Volume 16, Issue 8, 2023

Published on: 08 June, 2023

Page: [851 - 871] Pages: 21

DOI: 10.2174/2352096516666230428104626

Price: $65


Background: Steganography is the approach of camouflaging the covert object within another cover object. This manuscript suggested a novel steganography approach to conceal the covert data presence. The basic idea behind this is to generate an information-hiding approach that increases the payload capacity and good PSNR value without sacrificing much distortion of the image.

Objective: To develop a novel data-hiding approach that increases imperceptibility, robustness, and payload capacity.

Methods: The Neighbour Mean Interpolation technique is used to scale up the original image to generate Interpolated pixels of the given image. An even-odd scheme on the interpolated stego pixel is used to camouflage the obscure code. MATLAB is used for the implementation of the new approach and results calculation.

Results: The Experimental analysis reveals that our suggested approach has a finer embedding capacity for camouflaging the secret data as the original image of size (MxN) is scaled up to size (2M- 1 x2N-1) and also manages the good visuality of the cover or graven image. The proposed method is compared with Jung and Yoo, and Selvrani's method. The result of this comparison shows that the proposed method has finer imperceptibility than these two previously existing techniques.

Conclusion: A novel approach towards image steganography using neighbor mean interpolation has been proposed and implemented. A new steganography method is used for camouflaging the confidential code into the cover object using NMI without producing any major differences in the input image. The new approach provides better imperceptibility, robustness, and payload capacity.

Keywords: Index terms, steganography, interpolation, mean, LSB, PSNR, MSE, NMI.

Graphical Abstract
F.A.P. Petitcolas, R.J. Anderson, J. Ross, and M.G. Kuhn, "Information hiding -A survey", In Proceedings of the IEEE (USA), special issue on protection of multimedia content, vol. 87, 1999, pp. 1062-1078
N.F. Johnson, and S. Jajodia, "Exploring steganography: Seeing the unseen", Computer, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 26-34, 1998.
H.C. Wu, H.C. Wang, C.M. Wang, and C-S. Tsai, "Coloured visual cryptography using fixed size meaningful share", Int. J. Comput. Math., vol. 88, no. 6, pp. 1239-1255, 2011.
A. Desoky, "Innocipher: A novel innocent-cipher-based cryptography paradigm-High level of security for fooling the enemy", Inf. Secur. J., vol. 22, pp. 83-97, 2013.
N. Provos, and P. Honeyman, "Hide and seek: an introduction to steganography", IEEE Secur. Priv., vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 32-44, 2003.
"A. OluwakemiC, A. Kayode S, and O. Ayotunde, “Efficient data hiding system using cryptography and steganography”", Int. J. Appl. Inf. Syst., vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 6-11, 2012. [IJAIS]. [
R.A. Ghazy, A.M. Abbas, N. Al-Zubi, E.S. Hassan, N.A. El-Fishawy, M.M. Hadhoud, M.I. Dessouky, E-S.M. El-Rabaie, S.A. Alshebeili, and F.E. Abd El-Samie, "Block-based SVD image watermarking in spatial and transform domains", Int. J. Electron., vol. 102, no. 7, pp. 1091-1113, 2015.
G. Borse, V. Anand, and K. Patel, "Steganography : Exploring an ancient art of hiding information from past to the future", Multimedia Syst., vol. 3, pp. 192-194, 2013.
T.R.G. Nair, V. Suma, and S. Manas, "Genetic algorithm to make persistent security and quality of image in steganography from R.S. analysis", Int. J. Comput. Appl., vol. 53, pp. 25-29, 2012.
K. Joshi, "Image steganography techniques in spatial domain, their parameters and analytical techniques : A review article", Int. J. Adv. Innov. Res., vol. 2, pp. 23-32, 2013. [IJAIR
K. Joshi, "“Relative antropy based analysis of image steganography techniques”, Int. J. P2p Netw", Trends Technol., vol. 1, pp. 1-4, 2011.
R. Poornima, and R.J. Iswarya, "An overview of digital image steganography", Int. J. Comput. Sci. Eng., vol. 4, pp. 23-31, 2013.
R. Mstafa, and C. Bach, "Information hiding in images using steganography techniques", Int. J. Comput. Appl., vol. 53, pp. 25-29, 2013.
V. Bhateja, S. Devi, and S. Urooj, "An adaptive image steganography algorithm using successive pixel difference embedding and integer wavelet transform", Lecture Notes Electr. Engg., vol. 22, pp. 487-498, 2013.
K.H. Jung, and K.Y. Yoo, Steganographic method based on interpolation and LSB substitution of digital images., Springer Science and Business Media New York, 2014.
N. Mathew, and A. Grace Selvarani, "A novel reversible data hiding technique based on histogram shifting and efficient use of location map", Int. J. Comput. Appl., vol. 89, no. 1, pp. 25-29, 2014.
J.A. Hussein, "Spatial domain watermarking scheme for colored images based on log- average luminance", ar Xiv preprint ar Xiv :1001.3496, 2010.
D.P. Mukherjee, S. Maitra, and S.T. Acton, "Spatial Domain digital watermarking of multimedia objects for buyer authentication", IEEE Trans. Multimed., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 1-15, 2004.
N. Nikolaidis, and I. Pitas, "Robust image watermarking in the spatial domain", Signal Processing, vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 385-403, 1998.
G.C. Langelaar, I. Setyawan, and R.L. Lagendijk, "Watermarking digital image and video data. A state-of-the-art overview", IEEE Signal Process. Mag., vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 20-46, 2000.
A. Lumini, and D. Maio, A wavelet based image watermarking scheme in information technology., Int. Confer. Cod. Comput, 2000, pp. 122-127.
R.K. Megalingam, M.M. Nair, R. Srikumar, V.K. Balasubramanian, and V.S.V. Sharma, "Performance comparison of novel, robust spatial domain digital image watermarking with the conventional frequency domain watermarking techniques", In In. International conference on signal acquisition and processing (ICSAP), IEEE, Bangalore (INDIA), 2010, pp. 349-353
S. Gupta, A. Goyal, and B. Bhushan, "Information hiding using least significant bit steganography and cryptography", Int. J. Mod. Educ. Comput. Sci., vol. 4, pp. 27-34, 2012.
C. Agarwal, A. Mishra, and A. Sharma, "Gray-scale image watermarking using GA-BPN hybrid network", J. Vis. Commun. Image Represent., vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 1135-1146, 2013.
R. Mehta, N. Rajpal, and V.P. Vishwakarma, "A robust and efficient image watermarking scheme based on Lagrangian SVR and lifting wavelet transform", Int. J. Mach. Learn. Cybern., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 379-395, 2017.
R. Mehta, N. Rajpal, and V.P. Vishwakarma, "Robust image watermarking scheme in lifting wavelet domain using GA-LSVR hybridization", Int. J. Mach. Learn. Cybern., vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 145-161, 2018.
H. Peng, J. Wang, and W. Wang, "Image watermarking method in multiwavelet domain based on support vector machines", J. Syst. Softw., vol. 83, no. 8, pp. 1470-1477, 2010.
G. Chen, and T.D. Bui, "Invariant Fourier-wavelet descriptor for pattern recognition", Pattern Recognit., vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 1083-1088, 1999.
G.Y. Chen, T.D. Bui, and A. Krzyżak, "Rotation invariant pattern recognition using ridgelets, wavelet cycle-spinning and Fourier features", Pattern Recognit., vol. 38, no. 12, pp. 2314-2322, 2005.
G.Y. Chen, T.D. Bui, and A. Krzyżak, "Rotation invariant feature extraction using Ridgelet and Fourier transforms", Pattern Anal. Appl., vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 83-93, 2006.
W.C. Chu, "DCT-based image watermarking using subsampling", IEEE Trans. Multimed., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 34-38, 2003.
M. Eyadat, and S. Vasikarla, "Performance evaluation of an incorporated DCT block-based watermarking algorithm with human visual system model", Pattern Recognit. Lett., vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 1405-1411, 2005.
S. Liyun, M. Hong, and T. Shifu, "Adaptive image digital watermarking with DCT and FCM", Wuhan Univ. J. Nat. Sci., vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 1657-1660, 2006.
B. Feng, Z. Liu, K. Wei, W. Lu, and Y. Lin, "Variable rate syndrome-trellis codes for steganography on bursty channels", In International workshop (IWDW), Melbourne, VIC, Australia, 2020, pp. 15-30
J. Mai, Y. Wu, Z. Liu, J. Guo, Z. Ying, X. Chen, and S. Cui, "Anomaly detection method for vehicular network based on collaborative deep support vector data description", Phys. Commun., vol. 56, p. 101940, 2023.
B. Feng, Z. Liu, X. Wu, and Y. Lin, "Robust syndrome-trellis codes for fault-tolerant steganography", In International conference on Security with Intelligent Computing and Big-Data Services (SICBS, Springer), Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, 2020, pp. 115-127

Rights & Permissions Print Export Cite as
© 2023 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy