Background: In recent years, CO2 composite fracturing technology has been widely used in unconventional reservoirs. Compared to conventional hydraulic fracturing, CO2 fracturing can create complex fractures, replenish formation energy and reduce oil flow resistance. For shale oil reservoirs with natural fractures, CO2 composite fracturing can not only give full play to the advantages of complex fracture networks created by CO2 but also make use of water-based fracturing fluid to create long fractures with high conductivity.
Methods: Based on fracture fluid flow, stress interference, natural fracture description, and CO2 phase change equation, a CO2 composite fracture propagation model was established in this paper to simulate the effects of fracturing fluid type, CO2 proportion, construction scale, natural fracture development, fracturing fluid injection rate and other factors on the propagation morphology of CO2 injection fracture network in shale oil reservoirs.
Results: The results show that the water-based fracturing fluid is beneficial to the formation of long main fractures, but the overall complexity of the fracture network and the effective stimulated volume of the fracture network are significantly lower than that of CO2 fracturing. The application of the appropriate proportion of CO2 composite fracturing fluid can give full play to the comprehensive advantages of CO2 and water-based fracturing fluid and realize the full stimulation of the reservoir. CO2 fracturing in shale oil reservoirs with low principal stress difference and high natural fracture development extent can communicate natural fractures in a large range and form a complex fracture network. For shale oil reservoirs with natural fractures, a high fracturing fluid injection rate can significantly improve the complexity of the fracture network.
Conclusion: The CO2 composite fracturing technology is applied to horizontal wells in X shale reservoir, and the production after fracturing is significantly higher than that of offset wells, which can be applied in the same type of reservoir and has broad application prospects.