Background: Microwave synthesis has developed as a powerful tool for the cost-effective and greener synthesis of organic molecules, including quinazolines. Irradiation with microwave leads to the excitation of molecules and equitable distribution of thermal energy in a much shorter time than conventional synthesis. This results in shorter reaction time and, more often than not, higher efficiency.
Objective: The primary objective of the work presented in this article was to prepare hydrazine hydrate or thiourea derivative of quinazolines through microwave synthesis as small-molecule scaffolds for further need-based functionalisation, isolation, and characterisation. We, herein, report the synthesis of two quinazolinone derivatives of thiourea and hydrazine, 3-amino-2-phenylquinazolin-4(3H)-one (QH) and 4-oxo-2-phenylquinazoline-3(4H)-carbothioamide (QTh), respectively.
Method: A multi-step synthetic strategy starting from anthranilic acid was employed to synthesise the small molecule quinazolinones 3-amino-2-phenylquinazolin-4(3H)-one (QH) and 4-oxo-2- phenylquinazoline-3(4H)-carbothioamide (QTh). The compounds were synthesised by reacting hydrazine and thiourea with 2-benzamidobenzoyl chloride in DMF under microwave irradiation (800 W at 135 °C for 4 min) in the presence of potassium carbonate. The acid chloride was prepared by chlorination of 2-benzamidobenzoic acid, which in turn was synthesised from anthranilic acid by benzoylation. This method is an efficient alternative approach to synthesising quinazolinones from benzoxazin-4-ones.
Results: We have successfully synthesised, isolated, and characterised the quinazolinone derivative QH (yield: 81%) and QTh (yield: 85%). The structures of the compounds were established through spectroscopic techniques. Theoretical optimisation of the structures was also achieved using DFT. The HOMOLUMO difference for QH and QTh was calculated to be 4.60 and 4.47 eV, respectively.
Conclusion: The reported protocol is advantageous over conventional methods of quinazoline synthesis from benzoxazin-4-ones. The time required for the reaction is much less (4 min) as compared to the usual requirements of reflux (> 4 h); the higher energy gap of QH indicates greater stability than that of QTh.
Keywords: 3-amino-2-phenylquinazolin-4(3H)-one (QH), 4-oxo-2-phenylquinazoline-3(4H)-carbothioamide (QTh), HOMOLUMO, DMF, microwave irradiation. Small-molecule quinazolinone scaffolds, microwave synthesis, hydrazine hydrate, thiourea, DFT, Gaussian.
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