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Current Drug Research Reviews


ISSN (Print): 2589-9775
ISSN (Online): 2589-9783

Research Article

Effect of COVID-19 Vaccination on Menstrual Cycle Patterns of Reproductive-age Women: A Multi-centric Observational Study

Author(s): Naina Kumar*, Neha Gangane, Ipsita Mohapatra, Charushila Rukadikar, Vijayan Sharmila, K. Pushpalatha, Madhavi Eerike, G. Santhoshi, Subha Ranjan Samantaray, Shikha Seth, Pragati Trigunait, Nanditha Jangam Reddy, Shweta Patel, Sandhya Rani, Roopanshi Mishra and Kamlesh Negi

Volume 16, Issue 2, 2024

Published on: 15 June, 2023

Page: [237 - 248] Pages: 12

DOI: 10.2174/2589977515666230608140606

Price: $65


Aim: The study was conducted to know the impact of COVID-19 vaccination on menstrual cycle patterns and pre- and post-menstrual symptoms in women aged 18-45 years.

Background: COVID-19 vaccination was introduced to combat the dreadful impacts of human coronavirus infection. The two indigenously developed COVID-19 vaccines approved for use in India are COVISHIELD and COVAXIN.

Objectives: To investigate the effects of COVID-19 vaccination on the menstrual cycle, pre- and post-menstrual symptoms and to establish the correlation with the type of vaccine received.

Methods: Multi-centric observational study conducted in six institutes of national importance in different states of India over one year. A total of 5709 female participants fulfilling inclusion criteria were enrolled. Data about the impact of vaccines (COVISHIELD and COVAXIN) and prior COVID-19 infection on the menstrual cycle and its associated symptoms were obtained using all participants' online and offline interviews.

Results: Of 5709 participants, 78.2% received COVISHIELD and 21.8% COVAXIN. Of the total 5709 participants, 333 (5.8%) developed post-vaccination menstrual disturbances, with 32.7% having frequent cycles, 63.7% prolonged cycles, and 3.6% inter-menstrual bleeding. A total of 301 participants noticed changes in the amount of bleeding, with 50.2% excessive, 48.8% scanty, and 0.99% amenorrhea followed by heavy bleeding. Furthermore, the irregularities of the menstrual cycle (p = 0.011) and length (0.001) were significantly higher in the COVAXIN group (7.2%) as compared to the COVISHIELD (5.3%) group. A total of 721 participants complained of newly developed/worsening pre- and post-menstrual symptoms. These symptoms were significantly higher in the COVISHIELD group (p = 0.031), with generalized weakness and body pains as the main complaints (p = 0.001). No significant difference was observed in the incidence of COVID-19 infection with these vaccines. No significant associations were observed when comparing menstrual abnormalities among those with COVID-19 infection (p > 0.05).

Conclusion: COVISHIELD and COVAXIN vaccines were associated with menstrual cycle disturbances and pre-and post-menstrual symptoms in a small proportion of participants, with 94.7% having no change in the amount of bleeding during menstruation post-vaccination. The menstrual irregularities observed were significantly higher with the COVAXIN vaccine.

Others: Further, long-term studies are required to confirm that the impact of COVID-19 vaccination on the menstrual cycle may be short-lasting, with no severe effects on women’s menstrual health.

Keywords: COVID-19, infection, COVISHIELD, COVAXIN, menstrual cycle, vaccination.

Graphical Abstract

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