Background & Aim: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is considered a precipitating factor for renal impairment in patients with liver cirrhosis. No specific study addressing this problem has been reported. This study aimed to detect the incidence and predictive factors of hepatorenal syndrome in these patients.
Materials and Methods: This study enrolled 121 hepatic cirrhotic patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. History taking, clinical examination, and laboratory investigations including ascitic fluid analysis were carried out. Kidney function tests were repeated 3 days after the initiation of treatment. Patients were divided into 2 groups after one week of treatment during the follow-up period: Group I: patients without hepatorenal syndrome, and Group II: patients with hepatorenal syndrome. Multivariate analysis was performed to determine independent predictors of hepatorenal syndrome development.
Results: A total of 30 patients (24.8%) developed hepatorenal syndrome. Patients with hepatorenal syndrome had significantly lower sodium and albumin levels as well as higher creatinine, bilirubin, Child-Turcotte-Pugh score, portal vein diameter, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score. Higher percentage of them had a history of recurrent spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and multiple therapeutic paracentesis of ascites. Multivariate analysis detected that serum bilirubin, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease-Sodium, and portal vein diameter were significant predictors of hepatorenal syndrome. Cutoff values were determined as 3.3 mg/dl for bilirubin, 15.9 mm for portal vein diameter, and 26 for Model for End-Stage Liver Disease-Sodium.
Conclusion: Hepatorenal syndrome is a common complication of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. In our study, high serum bilirubin, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease-Sodium, and portal vein diameter are predictors of the development of hepatorenal syndrome in patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.
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