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Current Cardiology Reviews


ISSN (Print): 1573-403X
ISSN (Online): 1875-6557

Mini-Review Article

Appraisal of Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Biomarkers, and Ocular Imaging in Cardiovascular Risk Prediction

Author(s): Julie S. Moore*, M. Andrew Nesbit and Tara Moore

Volume 19, Issue 6, 2023

Published on: 29 August, 2023

Article ID: e270723219181 Pages: 10

DOI: 10.2174/1573403X19666230727101926

Price: $65


Cardiovascular disease remains a leading cause of death worldwide despite the use of available cardiovascular disease risk prediction tools. Identification of high-risk individuals via risk stratification and screening at sub-clinical stages, which may be offered by ocular screening, is important to prevent major adverse cardiac events. Retinal microvasculature has been widely researched for potential application in both diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk prediction. However, the conjunctival microvasculature as a tool for cardiovascular disease risk prediction remains largely unexplored. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the current cardiovascular risk assessment methods, identifying gaps in the literature that imaging of the ocular microcirculation may have the potential to fill. This review also explores the themes of machine learning, risk scores, biomarkers, medical imaging, and clinical risk factors. Cardiovascular risk classification varies based on the population assessed, the risk factors included, and the assessment methods. A more tailored, standardised and feasible approach to cardiovascular risk prediction that utilises technological and medical imaging advances, which may be offered by ocular imaging, is required to support cardiovascular disease prevention strategies and clinical guidelines.

Keywords: Cardiovascular disease, risk factors, eye, microcirculation, biomarkers, medical imaging.

Graphical Abstract
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