Nanotechnology involves the study of different materials on the nanometer scale, typically less than 100 nm in size. Nanomedicine is the creation of nanotechnology, a new science and technology area. Similarly, various nanomaterials, such as nanostructure, nanotubes, and nanoparticles, were also found to have significant applications in the human biological system at the molecular level to achieve healthcare advantage. Nanotechnology is rapidly expanding in the field of medicine with a special emphasis on ophthalmology. Nanotechnology advancements need to be translated into a new and exciting platform for diagnosis, treatment, and therapeutics for ocular disease. The application of nanotechnology in ocular disease and cancer, such as nanoparticle-based drug delivery system, drug development, gene therapy, and tissue engineering, helps overcome many ocular problems. In particular, one of the most important applications of the emerging nanoscience system is used in ocular cancer diagnosis and therapy with the help of carbon nanotubes, nanocrystals, nanowires, etc. Several approaches have been developed for treatment and therapy for ocular disease. Moreover, these tremendous approaches have been safely used and effective for a broad range of applications. In this study, the focus is to discuss recent findings and various constraints and summarize the applications of nanotechnology-mediated systems for treating various ocular diseases.
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