Generic placeholder image

Current Nanomaterials


ISSN (Print): 2405-4615
ISSN (Online): 2405-4623

Research Article

Zingiber Officinale-assisted Graphene Oxide Green Reduction for Excellent Photocatalysis

Author(s): Krati Saini, Pankaj Chamoli*, Ravi K. Shukla, Kamal K. Kar and K. K. Raina

Volume 9, Issue 4, 2024

Published on: 24 October, 2023

Page: [303 - 313] Pages: 11

DOI: 10.2174/0124054615240655231017062223

Price: $65


Introduction: A facile approach for producing graphene nanosheets (GNs) has been established by reducing graphene oxide (GO) with ginger extract (GEx) at low temperature. The elimination of oxygen characteristics from GO has been validated by a Raman study.

Method: FTIR analysis also supports the Raman signatures of the removal of oxygen species from the carbon core. Surface analysis confirms the remarkable deoxidation of GO and settles the production of GNs. After that, synthesized GNs were tested for their capability to photodegrade Methylene blue (MB) dye under visible and UV (both 125 W) light.

Result: At low concentrations (0.5 mg), GNs are an effective photocatalyst for the degradation of MB, with a maximum degradation efficiency of 91.84% in 45 minutes when exposed to UV light irradiation.

Conclusion: Results favor that the GEx provides a potential substitute for toxic or harmful reducing agents for the ecologically sustainable production of GNs on a mass scale and synthesized GNs act as an excellent photocatalyst against MB.

Keywords: Graphene nanosheets, green reduction, Methylene blue, photocatalytic activity, zingiber officinalis, reducing agents.

Graphical Abstract
Singh NB, Nagpal G, Agrawal S. Rachna water purification by using adsorbents: A review, environ. Technol Innov 2018; 11: 187-240.
Duklan N, Chamoli P, Raina KK, Shukla RK. Dye dispersed lyotropic liquid crystals: Soft materials with high ionic conductivity and self-sustained adsorbents for dye sequestration. Inorg Chem Commun 2020; 116: 107924.
Werber JR, Osuji CO, Elimelech M. Materials for next-generation desalination and water purification membranes. Nat Rev Mater 2016; 1(5): 16018.
Boretti A, Al-Zubaidy S, Vaclavikova M, Al-Abri M, Castelletto S, Mikhalovsky S. Outlook for graphene-based desalination membranes. npj Clean Water 2018; 1(1): 5.
Tabish TA, Memon FA, Gomez DE, Horsell DW, Zhang S. A facile synthesis of porous graphene for efficient water and wastewater treatment. Sci Rep 2018; 8(1): 1817.
[] [PMID: 29379045]
Jayakaran P, Nirmala GS, Govindarajan L. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of graphene-based adsorbents in wastewater treatment. Int J Chem Eng 2019; 2019: 1-17.
Xu C, Cui A, Xu Y, Fu X. Graphene oxide-TiO2 composite filtration membranes and their potential application for water purification. Carbon 2013; 62: 465-71.
Novoselov KS, Fal’ko VI, Colombo L, Gellert PR, Schwab MG, Kim K. One-step one chemical synthesis process of graphene from rice husk for energy storage applications. Nature 2012; 490: 192-200.
[] [PMID: 23060189]
Wang R, Sun X, Wang X, Jiang G, Jiang G. Review on the applications of functionalized graphene composites as drug delivery carriers. Phys Chem 2013; 3(3): 283-90.
Subramaniam CK, Maiyalagan T. Double layer energy storage in graphene - a study. Micro Nanosyst 2012; 4(3): 180-5.
Pappas GS, Ferrari S, Wan C. Recent advances in graphene-based materials for lithium batteries. Curr Org Chem 2015; 19(18): 1838-49.
Zhou Y, Wang Y, Wang Y, Li X. Humidity-enabled ionic conductive trace carbon dioxide sensing of nitrogen-doped Ti 3 C 2 Tx mxene/polyethyleneimine composite films decorated with reduced graphene oxide nanosheets. Anal Chem 2020; 92(24): 16033-42.
[] [PMID: 33237743]
Kumar N, Chamoli P, Misra M, Manoj MK, Sharma A. Advanced metal and carbon nanostructures for medical, drug delivery and bio-imaging applications. Nanoscale 2022; 14(11): 3987-4017.
[] [PMID: 35244647]
Wang Y, Zhou Y, Wang Y. Humidity activated ionic-conduction formaldehyde sensing of reduced graphene oxide decorated nitrogen-doped MXene/titanium dioxide composite film. Sens Actuators B Chem 2020; 323: 128695.
Avouris P, Dimitrakopoulos C. Graphene: Synthesis and applications. Mater Today 2012; 15(3): 86-97.
Ghadim EE, Rashidi N, Kimiagar S, Akhavan O, Manouchehri F, Ghaderi E. Pulsed laser irradiation for environment friendly reduction of graphene oxide suspensions. Appl Surf Sci 2014; 301: 183-8.
Feng Y, Feng N, Du G. A green reduction of graphene oxide via starch-based materials. RSC Advances 2013; 3(44): 21466-74.
Cote LJ, Cruz-Silva R, Huang J. Flash reduction and patterning of graphite oxide and its polymer composite. J Am Chem Soc 2009; 131(31): 11027-32.
[] [PMID: 19601624]
Chamoli P, Das MK, Kar KK. Green synthesis of less defect density bilayer graphene. Graphene 2015; 3(1): 56-60.
Zhu C, Guo S, Fang Y, Dong S. Reducing sugar: New functional molecules for the green synthesis of graphene nanosheets. ACS Nano 2010; 4(4): 2429-37.
[] [PMID: 20359169]
Perumal D, Albert EL, Abdullah CAC. Green reduction of graphene oxide involving extracts of plants from different taxonomy groups. J Comp Sci 2022; 6(2): 58.
Chamoli P, Sharma R, Das MK, Kar KK. Mangifera indica, Ficus religiosa and Polyalthia longifolia leaf extract-assisted green synthesis of graphene for transparent highly conductive film. RSC Advances 2016; 6(98): 96355-66.
Fernández-Merino MJ, Guardia L, Paredes JI, et al. Vitamin C is an ideal substitute for hydrazine in the reduction of graphene oxide suspensions. J Phys Chem C 2010; 114(14): 6426-32.
Liu J, Fu S, Yuan B, Li Y, Deng Z, Am J. Toward a universal “adhesive nanosheet” for the assembly of multiple nanoparticles based on a protein-induced reduction/decoration of graphene oxide. J Am Chem Soc 2010; 132(21): 7279-81.
[] [PMID: 20462190]
Hatamie S, Akhavan O, Sadrnezhaad SK, Ahadian MM, Shirolkar MM, Wang HQ. Curcumin-reduced graphene oxide sheets and their effects on human breast cancer cells. Mater Sci Eng C 2015; 55: 482-9.
[] [PMID: 26117780]
Chamoli P, Das MK, Kar KK. Temperature dependence green reduction of graphene oxide by urea. Adv Mater Lett 2017; 8(3): 217-22.
Tee JY, Ng FL, Keng FSL,. Gnana kumar G, Phang S-M. Microbial reduction of graphene oxide and its application in microbial fuel cells and biophotovoltaics. Front Mater Sci 2023; 17(2): 230642.
Manikandan V, Lee NY. Reduced graphene oxide: Biofabrication and environmental applications. Chemosphere 2023; 311(Pt 1): 136934.
[] [PMID: 36273614]
Zhang P, Chen Y, Weng H, et al. Reduced graphene oxide composite aerogel prepared by europium-assisting radiation reduction as a broad-spectrum adsorbent for organic pollutants. J Mater Chem A Mater Energy Sustain 2023; 11(6): 2804-13.
Baliga MS, Haniadka R, Pereira MM, et al. Update on the chemopreventive effects of ginger and its phytochemicals. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2011; 51(6): 499-523.
[] [PMID: 21929329]
Masuda Y, Kikuzaki H, Hisamoto M, Nakatani N. Antioxidant properties of gingerol related compounds from ginger. Biofactors 2004; 21(1-4): 293-6.
[] [PMID: 15630214]
Stoilova I, Krastanov A, Stoyanova A, Denev P, Gargova S. Antioxidant activity of a ginger extract (Zingiber officinale). Food Chem 2007; 102(3): 764-70.
Tiwari MK, Mishra PC. Anti-oxidant activity of 6-gingerol as a hydroxyl radical scavenger by hydrogen atom transfer, radical addition and electron transfer mechanisms. J Chem Sci 2016; 128(8): 1199-210.
Hummers WS Jr, Offeman RE. Preparation of graphitic oxide. J Am Chem Soc 1958; 80(6): 1339.
Chamoli P, Das MK, Kar KK. Green synthesis of N-doped Graphene Nanosheets by Cow Urine. Curr Graphene Sci 2017; 1(1): 58-63.
Ranjan P, Agrawal S, Sinha A, Rao TR, Balakrishnan J, Thakur AD. A low-cost non-explosive synthesis of graphene oxide for scalable applications. Sci Rep 2018; 8(1): 12007.
[] [PMID: 30104689]
Chamoli P, Das MK, Kar KK. Structural, optical, and electrical characteristics of graphene nanosheets synthesized from microwave-assisted exfoliated graphite. Mater Res Express 2017; 4: 015012.
Konmun J, Danwilai K, Ngamphaiboon N, Sripanidkulchai B, Sookprasert A, Subongkot S. A phase II randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study of 6-gingerol as an anti-emetic in solid tumor patients receiving moderately to highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Med Oncol 2017; 34(4): 69.
[] [PMID: 28349496]
Chamoli P, Singh SK, Akhtar MJ, Das MK, Kar KK. Nitrogen doped graphene nanosheet-epoxy nanocomposite for excellent microwave absorption. Physica E 2018; 103: 25-34.
Li M, Wang S, Gao H, et al. Selective removal of antibiotics over MgAl 2 O 4/C 3 N 4/YMnO 3 photocatalysts: Performance prediction and mechanism insight. J Am Ceram Soc 2023; 106(4): 2420-42.
Wang S, Li M, Gao H, et al. Construction of CeO2/YMnO3 and CeO2/MgAl2O4/YMnO3 photocatalysts and adsorption of dyes and photocatalytic oxidation of antibiotics: Performance prediction, degradation pathway and mechanism insight. Appl Surf Sci 2023; 608: 154977.
Tauc J, Ed. Amorphous and liquid semiconductor. New York: Plenum Press 1974.
Mathkar A, Tozier D, Cox P, et al. Controlled, stepwise reduction and band gap manipulation of graphene oxide. J Phys Chem Lett 2012; 3(8): 986-91.
[] [PMID: 26286560]
Velasco-Soto MA, Pérez-García SA, Alvarez-Quintana J, Cao Y, Nyborg L, Licea-Jiménez L. Selective band gap manipulation of graphene oxide by its reduction with mild reagents. Carbon 2015; 93: 967-73.
Some S, Kim Y, Yoon Y, et al. High-quality reduced graphene oxide by a dual-function chemical reduction and healing process. Sci Rep 2013; 3(1): 1929.
[] [PMID: 23722643]
Bharath G, Anwer S, Mangalaraja RV, Alhseinat E, Banat F, Ponpandian N. Sunlight-Induced photochemical synthesis of Au nanodots on α-Fe2O3@Reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite and their enhanced heterogeneous catalytic properties. Sci Rep 2018; 8(1): 5718.
[] [PMID: 29632316]
Singh P, Shandilya P, Raizada P, Sudhaik A, Rahmani-Sani A, Hosseini-Bandegharaei A. Review on various strategies for enhancing photocatalytic activity of graphene based nanocomposites for water purification. Arab J Chem 2020; 13(1): 3498-520.
Parthipan P, Al-Dosary MA, Al-Ghamdi AA, Subramania A, King J. Eco-friendly synthesis of reduced graphene oxide as sustainable photocatalyst for removal of hazardous organic dyes. J King Saud Univ Sci 2021; 33(4): 101438.
Siong VLE, Lee KM, Juan JC, Lai CW, Tai XH, Khe CS. Removal of methylene blue dye by solvothermally reduced graphene oxide: A metal-free adsorption and photodegradation method. RSC Advances 2019; 9(64): 37686-95.
[] [PMID: 35542257]
Lavakusa B, Mohan BS, Prasad PD, Belachew N, Basavaiah K. Facile synthesize of graphene oxide by modified hummer’s method and degradation of methylene blue dye under visible light irradiation. Int J Adv Res 2017; 5(3): 405-12.
Chamoli P, Shukla RK, Bezbaruah A, Kar KK, Raina KK. Rapid microwave growth of mesoporous TiO2 nano-tripods for efficient photocatalysis and adsorption. Appl Surf Sci 2021; 555: 149663.
Liu Y, Wang L, Xue N, Wang P, Pei M, Guo W. Ultra-highly efficient removal of methylene blue based on graphene oxide/TiO2/bentonite sponge. Materials 2020; 13(4): 824.
[] [PMID: 32054129]
Mishra A, Panigrahi A, Mal P, et al. Rapid photodegradation of methylene blue dye by rGO-V2O5 nano composite. J Alloys Compd 2020; 842: 155746.
Lv T, Pan L, Liu X, Sun Z. Enhanced photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by ZnO–reduced graphene oxide-carbon nanotube composites synthesized via microwave-assisted reaction. Catal Sci Technol 2012; 2(11): 2297-301.
Benjwal P, Kumar M, Chamoli P, Kar KK. Enhanced photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue and adsorption of arsenic(iii) by reduced graphene oxide (rGO)–metal oxide (TiO 2/Fe 3 O 4) based nanocomposites. RSC Advances 2015; 5(89): 73249-60.
Al Kausor M, Chakrabortty D. Graphene oxide based semiconductor photocatalysts for degradation of organic dye in waste water: A review on fabrication, performance enhancement and challenges. Inorg Chem Commun 2021; 129: 108630.
Habib A, Ikram M, Haider A, et al. Experimental and theoretical study of catalytic dye degradation and bactericidal potential of multiple phase Bi and MoS 2 doped SnO 2 quantum dots. RSC Advances 2023; 13(16): 10861-72.
[] [PMID: 37033429]
Ji S, Min BK, Kim SK, et al. Work function engineering of graphene oxide via covalent functionalization for organic field-effect transistors. Appl Surf Sci 2017; 419: 252-8.
Nunes TBO, Teodoro MD, Bomio MRD, Motta FV. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue and dye mixture using indium-doped CaWO 4 synthesized by sonochemical and microwave-assisted hydrothermal methods. Dalton Trans 2022; 51(47): 18234-47.
[] [PMID: 36399031]
Posa VR, Annavaram V, Koduru JR, Bobbala P,. v M, Somala AR. Preparation of graphene–TiO 2 nanocomposite and photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine-B under solar light irradiation. J Exp Nanosci 2016; 11(9): 722-36.
Zhang J, Xiong Z, Zhao XS. Graphene–metal–oxide composites for the degradation of dyes under visible light irradiation. J Mater Chem 2011; 21(11): 3634.
Yu C, Wang S, Zhang K, et al. Visible-light-enhanced photocatalytic activity of BaTiO3/γ-Al2O3 composite photocatalysts for photodegradation of tetracycline hydrochloride. Opt Mater 2023; 135: 113364.
Han Y, Wang S, Li M, et al. Strontium-induced phase, energy band and microstructure regulation in Ba 1− x Srx TiO 3 photocatalysts for boosting visible-light photocatalytic activity. Catal Sci Technol 2023; 13(9): 2841-54.

Rights & Permissions Print Cite
© 2024 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy