Generic placeholder image

Current Nanomaterials

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 2405-4615
ISSN (Online): 2405-4623

Review Article

A Review on Innovative Nanomaterials for Enhancing Energy Performance of the Building Envelope

Author(s): Nouran Ashraf Ali*, Samir Sadek and Ahmed Abdin

Volume 9, Issue 4, 2024

Published on: 01 November, 2023

Page: [287 - 302] Pages: 16

DOI: 10.2174/0124054615248038231020054831

open access plus

Abstract

The greatest threat of the 21st century is global warming. The building sector is a major contributor to energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. About 60% of the total energy consumed in the buildings is caused by HVAC systems. Nanotechnology is an emerging technology that can introduce innovative materials in the building sector which offers great potential for development of innovative building products to enhance performance and energy efficiency of the building. Nanomaterials are a promising candidate for building thermal insulation. This paper presents a theoretical overview of twenty case-based scenarios on the application of nanomaterials to reduce energy consumption in buildings. A comprehensive list of different nanomaterials is reviewed from the literature, as non-structural, insulation, and thermal energy storage materials to improve the insulation performance of the building. Extensive testing and simulation modelling have turned out to be the most popular in this area of research methods for experimental and theoretical studies. The combination of these methods can yield a reliable technique for studying nanomaterials. Finally, embedding nanomaterials into building walls, floors, and roofs can reduce energy consumption and enhance thermal performance of a building’s envelope.

Keywords: Energy efficiency, nano architecture; nanomaterials, nano glazing systems, nano VIP panels, nano PCMs, building envelope.

Next »
[1]
Ürge-Vorsatz D, Cabeza LF, Serrano S, Barreneche C, Petrichenko K. Heating and cooling energy trends and drivers in buildings. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 2015; 41: 85-98.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2014.08.039]
[2]
Azari R. Life cycle energy consumption of buildings; embodied + operational. Sustain Construc Technol 2019; (Jan): 123-44.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-811749-1.00004-3]
[3]
Wang Y, Kuckelkorn J, Zhao FY, Spliethoff H, Lang W. A state of art of review on interactions between energy performance and indoor environment quality in Passive House buildings. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 2017; 72: 1303-19.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2016.10.039]
[4]
Asmaa GH. Parametric design optimization for solar screens: An approach for balancing thermal and daylight performance for office buildings in Egypt. Cairo, Egypt: Cairo University 2016.
[5]
Okokpujie IP, Essien V, Ikumapayi OM, Nnochiri ES, Okokpujie K, Akinlabi ET. An overview of thermal insulation material for sustainable engineering building application. Int J Des Nat Ecodyn 2022; 17(6): 831-41.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.18280/ijdne.170603]
[6]
Nano technology building insulation effect on the thermal behavior of building under different Algerian weather. Int J Multiphys 2022; 16(3)
[http://dx.doi.org/10.21152/1750-9548.16.3.273]
[7]
Leydecker S. Nano Materials: In Architecture, Interior Architecture and Design. Basel: Birkhäuser 2008.
[8]
Rostam NG, Mahdavinejad MJ, Rostam MG. Commercializing usage of nano-insulating materials in building industry and future architecture. Proc Mater Sci 2015; 11: 644-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mspro.2015.11.004]
[9]
G Z. Basic properties of nanomaterials. 2015.
[10]
Francesca Scalisi. Nano-materials for architecture. J Civil Eng Archit 2017; 11(12)
[http://dx.doi.org/10.17265/1934-7359/2017.12.001]
[11]
Hussain M, Sabour EA, Mansour SM. Nanomaterials in facades a tool towards environmental sustainability in egypt. IOP Conf Ser Earth Environ Sci 2022; 1113(1): 012019.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/1113/1/012019]
[12]
Harinisri K, Jayanthi N, Suresh Kumar R. Diverse application of green nanotechnology - A review. Mater Today Proc 2023; Jun
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2023.06.085]
[13]
Abdelrahman AAM. Towards sustainable architecture with nanotechnology Al Azhar Engineering Eleventh International Conference Faculty of Engineering, Al Azhar University At,. Cairo – Egyp 2010.
[14]
Ashby MF, Ferreira PJ, Schodek DL. Nanomaterials and nanotechnologies: An overview. In: Nanomaterials, Nanotechnologies and Design. Elsevier 2009; pp. 1-16.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-7506-8149-0.00003-9]
[15]
Ionescu C, Baracu T, Vlad GE, Necula H, Badea A. The historical evolution of the energy efficient buildings. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 2015; 49: 243-53.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.04.062]
[16]
Pacheco-Torgal F, Jalali S. Nanotechnology: Advantages and drawbacks in the field of construction and building materials. Constr Build Mater 2011; 25(2): 582-90.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2010.07.009]
[17]
Pereira SR, Coelho MC. Can nanomaterials be a solution for application on alternative vehicles? – A review paper on life cycle assessment and risk analysis. Int J Hydrogen Energy 2015; 40(14): 4969-79.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2014.12.132]
[18]
Arivalagan KE. Nanomaterials and its potential applications. Int J Chemtech Res 2011.
[19]
Casini M. Smart materials and nanotechnology for energy retrofit of historic buildings. Rome, Italy 2014.
[20]
Nouran Ashraf Ali SS. Thermal performance of nano materials of a medium size office building envelope with special reference to Hot Arid Climatic Zone Of Egypt. 9th ASCAAD Conference Proceedings 2021.
[21]
Niroumand H, Zain MFM, Jamil M. The role of nanotechnology in architecture and built environment. Procedia Soc Behav Sci 2013; 89: 10-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.08.801]
[22]
Abdelwahab SMA. The Usage of Nanotechnology in Architecture Nanotechnology Effect on the Architectural Form and Function. Cairo, Egypt: Al Azhar University 2014.
[23]
Boafo FE, Ahn JG, Kim JT, Kim JH. Computing thermal bridge of VIP in building retrofits using design builder. Energy Proc 2015; 78: 400-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2015.11.683]
[24]
Akeiber H, Nejat P, Majid MZA, et al. A review on phase change material (PCM) for sustainable passive cooling in building envelopes. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 2016; 60: 1470-97.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2016.03.036]
[25]
Ibrahim M, Biwole PH, Wurtz E, Achard P. A study on the thermal performance of exterior walls covered with a recently patented silica-aerogel-based insulating coating. Build Environ 2014; 81: 112-22.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2014.06.017]
[26]
Casini M. Advanced materials for architecture. In: smart Buildings Woodhead Publishing. 2016.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-100635-1.00002-2]
[27]
Rashwan A, Farag O, Moustafa WS. Energy performance analysis of integrating building envelopes with nanomaterials. Int J Sustain Built Environ 2013; 2(2): 209-23.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsbe.2013.12.001]
[28]
Daryoush B, Darvish A. A case study and review of nanotechnology and nanomaterials in green architecture. Res J Environ Earth Sci 2013; 5(2): 78-84.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.19026/rjees.5.5641]
[29]
Parthenopoulou NK, Malindretos M. The use of innovative materials in innovative architectural applications. combining forces for high performance structures1. Mater Today Proc 2016; 3(3): 898-912.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2016.02.023]
[30]
Mohamed A. Towards nano architecture: Nanomaterial in architecture - A review of functions and applications. Int J Recent Sci 2015.
[31]
Boostani H, Modirrousta S. Review of nanocoatings for building application. Procedia Eng 2016; 145: 1541-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2016.04.194]
[32]
Robati M, Kokogiannakis G, McCarthy TJ. Impact of structural design solutions on the energy and thermal performance of an Australian office building. Build Environ 2017; 124: 258-82.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2017.08.018]
[33]
Han N, Ho JC. One-dimensional nanomaterials for energy applications. In: Nanocrystalline Materials. Elsevier 2014; pp. 75-120.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-407796-6.00003-8]
[34]
Khitab A, Abdin ZU, Ahmed I, Karim T. Thermal insulation of buildings through classical materials and nanomaterials. Recent Adv Nano-Tail Multi-Funct Cementi Composi 2022; (Jan): 277-303.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-323-85229-6.00011-1]
[35]
Abeer Samy YM. Nano-innovation in construction, a new era of sustainability. International Academy of Engineers, Pat-taya (Thailand), 24-25 April, 2015
[http://dx.doi.org/10.15242/IAE.IAE0415416]
[36]
Fahmy MHM. Nanomaterials & Architecture, Sustainable nanoarchitecture. Alexandria, Egypt: Alexandria University 2010.
[37]
Božić J. NAno insulation materials for energy efficient buildings. Contemp Mater 2015; 6(2)
[http://dx.doi.org/10.7251/COMEN1502149B]
[38]
Shafay SMIM. Nanotechnology as an approach to green architecture. Cairo, Egypt: Cairo University 2014.
[39]
Gao T, Sandberg LIC, Jelle BP. Nano Insulation Materials: Synthesis and Life Cycle Assessment. Procedia CIRP 2014; 15: 490-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.procir.2014.06.041]
[40]
Bozsaky D. Application of nanotechnology based thermal insulation materials in building construction. Acta Technica Jaurinensis 2016; 9(1): 29.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.14513/actatechjaur.v9.n1.391]
[41]
Elbony F, Sedhom S. Nano-based thermal insulating materials for building energy efficiency aerogel- Vacuum Insulation Panels (VIPs). Int Design J 2023; 0(0): 163-71.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.21608/idj.2022.105126.1029]
[42]
Jelle BP, Kalnæs SE. Nanotech based vacuum insulation panels for building applications. In: Nano and Biotech Based Materials for Energy Building Efficiency. Cham: Springer 2016; pp. 167-214.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-27505-5_7]
[43]
Chen Z, Wu Q. Application of Vacuum Insulation Panels (VIPs) in buildings. In: Thermal Insulation and Radiation Control Technologies for Buildings. Cham: Springer 2022.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-98693-3_11]
[44]
Ijjada N, Nayaka RR. Review on properties of some thermal insulating materials providing more comfort in the building. Mater Today Proc 2022; 58: 1354-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2022.02.230]
[45]
Leydecker S. Nano materials in architecture, interior architecture and design. Basel, CH: Birkhauser 2008.
[46]
Abdelrady A, Abdelhafez MHH, Ragab A. Use of insulation based on nanomaterials to improve energy efficiency of residential buildings in a hot desert climate. Sustainability 2021; 13(9): 5266.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/su13095266]
[47]
Ali AM, Farouk A, Ezzeldin M. Reducing buildings operating economics by selecting the optimal nano insulation thickness in external walls: Two case studies in Germany and USA. Civil Eng Architec 2022; 10(3): 937-62.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.13189/cea.2022.100315]
[48]
Nagy G, Adnan H. A guideline for developing resilient office buildings using nanotechnology applications. IOP Conf Ser Earth Environ Sci 2022; 1056(1): 012015.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/1056/1/012015]
[49]
Alonso L, Bedoya C, Lauret B, Alonso F. High energy performance with transparent (translucent) envelopes. In: Effective Thermal Insulation - The Operative Factor of a Passive Building Model. InTech 2012.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/37800]
[50]
Fouad FF. Nano Architecture and Sustainability. Alexandria, Egypt: Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University 2012.
[51]
Du R, Wang S, Li T. Energy-saving windows derived from transparent aerogels. Nano Research Energy 2023; Aug
[http://dx.doi.org/10.26599/NRE.2023.9120090]
[52]
Balaji D, Sivalingam S, Bhuvaneswari V, et al. Aerogels as alternatives for thermal insulation in buildings – A comparative teeny review. Mater Today Proc 2022; 62: 5371-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2022.03.541]
[53]
Kim S, Seo J, Cha J, Kim S. Chemical retreating for gel-typed aerogel and insulation performance of cement containing aerogel. Constr Build Mater 2013; 40: 501-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2012.11.046]
[54]
Schuss M, Pont U, Mahdavi A. Long-term experimental performance evaluation of aerogel insulation plaster. Energy Procedia 2017; 132: 508-13.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2017.09.696]
[55]
Buratti C, Moretti E, Belloni E. Aerogel plasters for building energy efficiency. In: Nano and Biotech Based Materials for Energy Building Efficiency. Cham: Springer 2016; pp. 17-40.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-27505-5_2]
[56]
Fedyukhin AV, Strogonov KV, Soloveva OV, et al. Aerogel product applications for high-temperature thermal insulation. Energies 2022; 15(20): 7792.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/en15207792]
[57]
Ibrahim M, Bianco L, Ibrahim O, Wurtz E. Low-emissivity coating coupled with aerogel-based plaster for walls’ internal surface application in buildings: Energy saving potential based on thermal comfort assessment. J Build Eng 2018; 18: 454-66.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jobe.2018.04.008]
[58]
Stahl T, Brunner S, Zimmermann M, Ghazi Wakili K. Thermo-hygric properties of a newly developed aerogel based insulation rendering for both exterior and interior applications. Energy Build 2012; 44(1): 114-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2011.09.041]
[59]
Elshazli MT, Mudaqiq M, Xing T, Ibrahim A, Johnson B, Yuan J. Experimental study of using Aerogel insulation for residential buildings. Adv Build Energy Res 2022; 16(5): 569-88.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17512549.2021.2001369]
[60]
Danaci HM, Akin N. Thermal insulation materials in architecture: A comparative test study with aerogel and rock wool. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022; 29(48): 72979-90.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-20927-2] [PMID: 35619004]
[61]
Mohamed AF, Gomaa MM, Amir AA, Ragab A. Energy, thermal, and economic benefits of aerogel glazing systems for educational buildings in hot arid climates. Sustainability 2023; 15(8): 6332.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/su15086332]
[62]
Liu Y, Chen Y, Lu L, Peng J, Zheng D, Lu B. Optical path model and energy performance optimization of aerogel glazing system filled with aerogel granules. Appl Energy 2023; 334: 120623.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2022.120623]
[63]
Zhu R, Liu X, Liu Z, Ye Y. Study of the thermal and energy performance of a translucent aerogel glazing system. J Green Build 2022; 17(3): 3-31.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3992/jgb.17.3.3]
[64]
Gao T, Ihara T, Grynning S, Jelle BP, Lien AG. Perspective of aerogel glazings in energy efficient buildings. Build Environ 2016; 95: 405-13.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2015.10.001]
[65]
Abdul Mujeebu M, Ashraf N, Alsuwayigh AH. Effect of nano vacuum insulation panel and nanogel glazing on the energy performance of office building. Appl Energy 2016; 173: 141-51.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.04.014]
[66]
Marzi T. Nanostructured materials for protection and reinforcement of timber structures: A review and future challenges. Constr Build Mater 2015; 97: 119-30.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.07.016]
[67]
Inas HIA. Nanomaterials and their applications in interior design. AIJRHASS 2014; pp. 14-512.
[68]
Buratti C, Belloni E, Merli F, Mastoori M, Sharifi SN, Pignatta G. Analysis of nano silica aerogel based glazing effect on the solar heat gain and cooling load in a school under different climatic conditions. The 3rd Built Environment Research Fo-rum, Basel Switzerland, 2022.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2021012015]
[69]
Khaled Mohammad A, Ghosh A. Exploring energy consumption for less energy-hungry building in UK using advanced aerogel window. Sol Energy 2023; 253: 389-400.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2023.02.049]
[70]
Zahir H. Challenges of the application of PCMs to achieve zero energy buildings under hot weather condi-tions: A review. J Energy Storage 2023; 64: 107156.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.est.2023.107156]
[71]
Wang X, Li W, Luo Z, Wang K, Shah SP. A critical review on phase change materials (PCM) for sustainable and energy efficient building: Design, characteristic, performance and application. Energy Build 2022; 260: 111923.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2022.111923]
[72]
Sharshir SW, Joseph A, Elsharkawy M, et al. Thermal energy storage using phase change materials in building applications: A review of the recent development. Energy Build 2023; 285: 112908.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2023.112908]
[73]
Rashid FL, Al-Obaidi MA, Dulaimi A, Mahmood DMN, Sopian K. A review of recent improvements, developments, and effects of using phase-change materials in buildings to store thermal energy. Designs 2023; 7(4): 90.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/designs7040090]
[74]
Ma Z, Lin W, Sohel MI. Nano-enhanced phase change materials for improved building performance. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 2016; 58: 1256-68.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.12.234]
[75]
Said Z, Sohail MA, Pandey AK, et al. Nanotechnology-integrated phase change material and nanofluids for solar applications as a potential approach for clean energy strategies: Progress, challenges, and opportunities. J Clean Prod 2023; 416: 137736.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2023.137736]
[76]
Sayyar M, Weerasiri RR, Soroushian P, Lu J. Experimental and numerical study of shape-stable phase-change nanocomposite toward energy-efficient building constructions. Energy Build 2014; 75: 249-55.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2014.02.018]
[77]
Biswas K, Lu J, Soroushian P, Shrestha S. Combined experimental and numerical evaluation of a prototype nano-PCM enhanced wallboard. Appl Energy 2014; 131: 517-29.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.02.047]
[78]
Zhu N, Liu P, Hu P, Liu F, Jiang Z. Modeling and simulation on the performance of a novel double shape-stabilized phase change materials wallboard. Energy Build 2015; 107: 181-90.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2015.07.051]
[79]
Evola G, Marletta L, Sicurella F. Simulation of a ventilated cavity to enhance the effectiveness of PCM wallboards for summer thermal comfort in buildings. Energy Build 2014; 70: 480-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2013.11.089]
[80]
Lei J, Yang J, Yang EH. Energy performance of building envelopes integrated with phase change materials for cooling load reduction in tropical Singapore. Appl Energy 2016; 162: 207-17.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.10.031]
[81]
Ye H, Long L, Zhang H, Zou R. The performance evaluation of shape-stabilized phase change materials in building applications using energy saving index. Appl Energy 2014; 113: 1118-26.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2013.08.067]
[82]
Barreneche C, Navarro L, de Gracia A, Fernández AI, Cabeza LF. In situ thermal and acoustic performance and environmental impact of the introduction of a shape-stabilized PCM layer for building applications. Renew Energy 2016; 85: 281-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2015.06.054]
[83]
Kheradmand M, Azenha M, de Aguiar JLB, Castro-Gomes J. Experimental and numerical studies of hybrid PCM embedded in plastering mortar for enhanced thermal behaviour of buildings. Energy 2016; 94: 250-61.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2015.10.131]
[84]
Yang X, et al. The effect of using phase change materials in the walls of a building on the amount of carbon dioxide production and reducing fuel consumption. J Build Eng 2022; 59: 105058.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jobe.2022.105058]
[85]
Kishore RA, Bianchi MVA, Booten C, Vidal J, Jackson R. Enhancing building energy performance by effectively using phase change material and dynamic insulation in walls. Appl Energy 2021; 283: 116306.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2020.116306]
[86]
Tunçbilek E,. Arıcı M, Krajčík M, Li Y, Jurčević M, Nižetić S. Impact of nano‐enhanced phase change material on thermal performance of building envelope and energy consumption. Int J Energy Res 2022; 46(14): 20249-64.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/er.8200]
[87]
Tokuç A,. Başaran T, Yesügey SC. An experimental and numerical investigation on the use of phase change materials in building elements: The case of a flat roof in Istanbul. Energy Build 2015; 102: 91-104.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2015.04.039]
[88]
Dardouri S, Tunçbilek E, Khaldi O,. Arıcı M, Sghaier J. Optimizing PCM integrated wall and roof for energy saving in building under various climatic conditions of mediterranean region. Buildings 2023; 13(3): 806.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/buildings13030806]
[89]
Boobalakrishnan P, Manoj Kumar P, Balaji G, et al. Thermal management of metal roof building using phase change material (PCM). Mater Today Proc 2021; 47: 5052-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2021.05.012]
[90]
Jaworski M,. Łapka P, Furmański P. Numerical modelling and experimental studies of thermal behaviour of building inte-grated thermal energy storage unit in a form of a ceiling panel Appl Energy 2014; 113: 548-57.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2013.07.068]
[91]
Silva T, Vicente R, Rodrigues F, Samagaio A, Cardoso C. Development of a window shutter with phase change materials: Full scale outdoor experimental approach. Energy Build 2015; 88: 110-21.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2014.11.053]
[92]
Wang Q, Zhao CY. Parametric investigations of using a PCM curtain for energy efficient buildings. Energy Build 2015; 94: 33-42.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2015.02.024]
[93]
Kaushik N, Saravanakumar P, Dhanasekhar S, et al. Thermal analysis of a double-glazing window using a Nano-Disbanded Phase Changing Material (NDPCM). Mater Today Proc 2022; 62: 1702-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2021.11.537]
[94]
King MFL, Rao PN, Sivakumar A, et al. Thermal performance of a double-glazed window integrated with a phase change material (PCM). Mater Today Proc 2022; 50: 1516-21.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2021.09.099]
[95]
Ceviz MA, Mandev E,. Muratçobanoğlu B, Çelik A, Afshari F. Experimental analysis of energy storage performance of phase change materials in horizontal double-glazing applications. J Energy Storage 2023; 73: 108836.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.est.2023.108836]
[96]
Ma L, Luo D, Hu H, et al. Energy performance of a rural residential building with PCM-silica aerogel sunspace in severe cold regions. Energy Build 2023; 280: 112719.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2022.112719]
[97]
Karim L, Barbeon F, Gegout P, Bontemps A, Royon L. New phase-change material components for thermal management of the light weight envelope of buildings. Energy Build 2014; 68(Jan): 703-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2013.08.056]
[98]
Babaharra O, Choukairy K, Faraji H, Hamdaoui S. Improved heating floor thermal performance by adding PCM microcapsules enhanced by single and hybrid nanoparticles. Heat Transf 2023; 52(5): 3817-38.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/htj.22853]
[99]
Valizadeh S, Ehsani M, Torabi Angji M. Development and thermal performance of wood-HPDE- PCM nanocapsule floor for passive cooling in building. Energy Sour A Recov Util Environ Effects 2019; 41(17): 2114-27.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15567036.2018.1550125]

© 2024 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy