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Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1386-2073
ISSN (Online): 1875-5402

Review Article

Nuclear Factor Kappa B: A Nobel Therapeutic Target of Flavonoids Against Parkinson's Disease

Author(s): Niraj Kumar Singh*, Ashini Singh and Mayank

Volume 27, Issue 14, 2024

Published on: 18 January, 2024

Page: [2062 - 2077] Pages: 16

DOI: 10.2174/0113862073295568240105025006

Price: $65

Abstract

Parkinson's disease (PD), the most common brain-related neurodegenerative disorder, is comprised of several pathophysiological mechanisms, such as mitochondrial dysfunction, neuroinflammation, aggregation of misfolded alpha-synuclein, and synaptic loss in the substantia nigra pars compacta region of the midbrain. Misfolded alpha-synuclein, originating from damaged neurons, triggers a series of signaling pathways in both glial and neuronal cells. Activation of such events results in the production and expression of several proinflammatory cytokines via the activation of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway. Consequently, this cascade of events worsens the neurodegenerative processes, particularly in conditions, such as PD and synucleinopathies. Microglia, astrocytes, and neurons are just a few of the many cells and tissues that express the NF-κB family of inducible types of transcription factors. The dual role of NF-κB activation can be crucial for neuronal survival, although the classical NF-κB pathway is important for controlling the generation of inflammatory mediators during neuroinflammation. Modulating NF-κB-associated pathways through the selective action of several agents holds promise for mitigating dopaminergic neuronal degeneration and PD. Several naturally occurring compounds in medicinal plants can be an effective treatment option in attenuating PD-associated dopaminergic neuronal loss via selectively modifying the NF-κB-mediated signaling pathways. Recently, flavonoids have gained notable attention from researchers because of their remarkable anti-neuroinflammatory activity and significant antioxidant properties in numerous neurodegenerative disorders, including PD. Several subclasses of flavonoids, including flavones, flavonols, isoflavones, and anthocyanins, have been evaluated for neuroprotective effects against in vitro and in vivo models of PD. In this aspect, the present review highlights the pathological role of NF-κB in the progression of PD and investigates the therapeutic potential of natural flavonoids targeting the NF-κB signaling pathway for the prevention and management of PD-like manifestations with a comprehensive list for further reference. Available facts strongly support that bioactive flavonoids could be considered in food and/or as lead pharmacophores for the treatment of neuroinflammation-mediated PD. Furthermore, natural flavonoids having potent pharmacological properties could be helpful in enhancing the economy of countries that cultivate medicinal plants yielding bioactive flavonoids on a large scale.

Keywords: Parkinson’s disease, NF-κB, neuroinflammation, flavonoid, neuroprotection, SNpc.

Graphical Abstract
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