Constant development enabled Infrared (IR) spectroscopy to become a widely used, non-invasive tool for fast sample analyses with less to no pre-preparation. Furthermore, computational data handling is no more a limiting factor and hence, IR measurements are predestined for clinical diagnostics and drug analysis. Within this review the focus was put on clinical topics of high interest. One example is Alzheimers disease, where the exact metabolism is still not clarified, or blood glucose monitoring for high throughput screening of patients without taking any drop of blood. The second section of this manuscript was focused on the analysis of drugs. The detection of physico-chemical parameters in pharmaceutics and the improvement of industrial proceedings allowed a dramatic increase of quality of produced medicine. In pharmaceutical industries problems with the equable allocation of agents occurs especially in scaling up processes. IR-analyzing- techniques serve as fast and precise indicators for the detection of active components and their distribution in tablets. In combination with statistical factors and medical investigations pharmaceuticals can be improved from their development until their application, and every step can be easily controlled by IR spectroscopy.