Ropivacaine is a new amide local anaesthetic, which is the first commercially available in its category as a pure S-(-) enantiomer. In most recent studies , ropivacaine exhibited a very close pharmacodynamic profile to equipotent doses of bupivacaine. Concentrations of 0.5percent, 0.75percent and 1percent (5, 7.5 and 10 mg / mL, respectively) ropivacaine are used for intraoperative anaesthesia, while the concentration of 0.2percent (2 mg / mL) is preferred for postoperative analgesia, either alone or in combination with opioids and / or clonidine. Ropivacaine is responsible for excellent postoperative analgesia following epidural and peripheral perineural injections, using single-shot injections and continuous infusions. Differential sensory / motor block is only apparent at low concentrations (0.2percent and less). A significant amount of recent literature focuses on its use for peripheral blocks of the lower limbs, i.e. sciatic and femoral nerve blocks. The primary benefit of ropivacaine is its lower toxicity, mainly lower cardiotoxicity, following accidental intravascular injection. This higher therapeutic index leads to an improved safety profile as compared with potent local anaesthetics such as racemic bupivacaine. For that reason, ropivacaine is a good choice for both intraoperative and postoperative regional anaesthesia and analgesia.