Increasing prevalence of thyroid function abnormality has been reported in HIV-infected patients. We aim to evaluate the prevalence and assess risk factors of thyroid dysfunction in Thai HIV-infected patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Serum thyroid hormone concentrations (FT4, FT3, and TSH) and thyroid autoantibodies (TgAb and TPOAb) were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. A total of 200 HIV-infected outpatients were included. Ninety-seven patients (48.5%) were men (mean age of 36.3 ± 8.3 years). Duration of HIV infection was 49.6 ± 35.1 months and 53% had previous opportunistic infections (OI). Mean CD4 cell count was 340.6 ± 173.1 cells/mm3. Of these, 167 patients (83.5%) received antiretroviral therapy (ARV). Abnormal thyroid function test was detected in 32 patients (16%). Twenty-seven patients (13.5%) had decreased thyroid function (primary hypothyroidism 3, subclinical hypothyroidism 12, and low FT4 with low or normal TSH 12) whereas 5 patients had increased thyroid function (overt hyperthyroidism 1, subclinical hyperthyroidism 1, and isolated high FT3 3). None had clinical features of thyroid hormone dysfunction. Thirteen patients (6.5%) had thyroid antibody positive. Patients who received ARV had higher mean FT3 levels than those who were naive to ARV (p = 0.017). History of previous OI was found to be an independently significant risk factor for decreased thyroid function with the odds ratio of 3.28 (95% CI = 1.183-9.099; p = 0.022). Hypothyroidism was common among Thai HIV-infected patients, especially in those who had history of previous OI. It is therefore suggested that screening and/or monitoring of thyroid hormone in HIV-infected patients should be considered.