Leukemia is characterized by the production of an excessive number of abnormal white blood cells. Over time, this expanding population of poorly/non- functional white blood cells overwhelms the normal function of the bodys blood and immune systems. DNA translocations have been found common to leukemia, including Raf mutations. While the cause of leukemia is not known, several risk factors have been identified. In this review, we present an update on the role of AIDS related viruses as an etiology for leukemia. Human immunodeficiency virus-1 and -2 (HIV-1; -2) are the cause for the development of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), Human papillomavirus (HPV), and Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) are specifically implicated in AIDS associated malignancies. However, there are other viruses that are associated to a lesser extent with the AIDS condition and they are Human T-cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6). Of these viruses, HTLV-1 has been etiologically associated with leukemia. Recent evidence suggests that EBV, HBV, HCV, and KSHV may also play a role in the development of some types of leukemia. Raf signaling has been shown to aid in the infection and pathogenesis of many of these viruses, making Raf pathway components good potential targets for the treatment of leukemia induced by AIDS related viruses.