The c-Jun NH2-terminal Kinase (JNK) signaling pathway is frequently induced by cellular stress and correlated with neuronal death. This unique property makes JNK signaling a promising target for developing pharmacological intervention. Among several neurological disorders, JNK signaling is particularly implicated in ischemic stroke and Parkinsons disease. The inhibitors of the JNK signaling pathway include upstream kinase inhibitors (for example, CEP-1347), small chemical inhibitors of JNK (SP600125 and AS601245), and peptide inhibitors of the interaction between JNK and its substrates (D-JNKI and I-JIP). The mechanisms by which JNK signaling induces apoptosis and evidence of cytoprotective effects of these JNK inhibitors are summarized in the present review.