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Current Drug Targets - Infectious Disorders


ISSN (Print): 1568-0053
ISSN (Online): 1875-5852

A Review of HIV-1 Resistance to the Nucleoside and Nucleotide Inhibitors

Author(s): Nancy Shulman and Mark Winters

Volume 3, Issue 4, 2003

Page: [273 - 281] Pages: 9

DOI: 10.2174/1568005033481024

Price: $65


The nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) were the first class of agents used for the treatment of HIV and remain an important component of combination antiretroviral therapy. Resistance to the NRTIs occurs by the acquisition of mutations in the reverse transcriptase gene that result in a structural change that either decreases the NRTI incorporation into the extending nucleotide chain or enhances removal of the NRTI from the terminated chain, also known as primer unblocking or pyrophosphorylysis. There are several major genetic mutational patterns of resistance and crossresistance that evolve with the NRTIs including the thymidine analog mutations M41L, D67N, K70R, L210W, T215Y, and K219Q / E / W, the non-thymidine mutations M184V, L74V, and K65R, and the mutidrug resistant Q151M complex, as well as others. Increasing knowledge of resistance and cross-resistance patterns that evolve on the NRTIs as well as the other antiretroviral classes will help optimize antiretroviral treatment strategies. Advancing knowledge of the biochemical and structural basis of resistance will aid in the design of newer compounds that are active against HIV resistant to the currently available drugs, ultimately prolonging virologic suppression and life in the millions of people who are infected with HIV.

Keywords: nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, drug resistance, reverse transcriptase, hiv, review

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