The outcome of patients with sepsis arises from multiple factors affecting both the host and the invading microorganisms. Age, presence of underlying disease, source of infection and some specific etiological agents have been related to prognosis. Appropriateness of antimicrobial therapy, considering the in vitro susceptibility tests for the infecting bacteria, has been strongly associated with the outcome. Therefore even after the cascade of sepsis has been triggered, the control of bacteria growth is still fundamental for the outcome of the infection. This is a major distinction point from experimental studies in which whole killed bacteria and their products are used as model of sepsis. However, even within the setting of adequate antimicrobial use, patients still die of sepsis. Thus, strategies focusing on further therapy targets are an important area of interest for basic and clinical research. Although such adjunctive sepsis therapy has failed to achieve consistent better survival rates so far, nevertheless, it improved our understanding of the pathophysiological events seen in sepsis that the possibility that a new and effective treatment may arise has been warmly considered. In this paper we aim to review some aspects of the pathogenesis of sepsis, focusing on recent advances and on possible targets for adjunctive therapy. Published clinical trials and experimental data supporting such trials are commented on.
Keywords: Adjunctive Therapy, septic shock, antimicrobial therapy, LPS-Cell Binding, Fluorescein isothiocyanate, Chlorpromazine-induced RsLPS, costimulatory molecules, thrombomodulin-thrombin, pentoxifylline group,, MOFS scores