The operating room offers a unique setting where anesthetics, preoperative medications, patient comorbidities, and surgery all merge. Anesthesiologists are responsible for combining these concerns into a dependable and safe approach. From formulation to administration, enhancements in nearly every aspect of a given drug have improved the ability of anesthesiologists to accomplish this. Some of these methodologies, including novel anesthetics and analgesics, drug delivery and administration including infusion pumps, antithrombotics, and a reappraisal of previous medications are highlighted in this review.While these advancements are significant, patients and healthcare systems globally are rightfully demanding safer application of drugs at every level. On May 1, 2012, a report issued by the Institute of Medicine advised the United States Food and Drug Administration to undertake a much more rigorous patient-centered effort to evaluate a drug’s safety over its entire life-cycle. This recommendation is in agreement with the objectives of the Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation. With these mutual goals shared by many stakeholders and their continued efforts, the future of the estimated 200 million global surgeries to be undertaken this year hopefully provides a safer experience while under anesthesia.