Wine has a rich history dating back thousands of years. It has been object of several studies and experiments performed by researchers and simple passionate people. Different varieties of grapes, strains of yeasts, and technologies produce different types of wine. The well-known variations result from the very complex interactions between the biochemical development of the fruit, reactions involved in fermentation, and human intervention in the overall process. The final product may contain tens of thousands of chemical compounds in amounts varying from a few percent to a few parts per billion. Numerous inventions have been proposed, concerning specific yeast strains, clones of grape able to improve wine sensory properties, plants and methods capable to make easier and cheaper its production and technical solutions for enhancing its packaging and preservation. This review presents a summary of the main European, United States and international patents available on wine production and preservation.