All common contributing factors to epilepsy such as trauma, malignancies and infections are accompanied by different levels of central nervous system inflammation that in turn have been associated with the occurrence of seizure. Emerging data from human brain tissue and experimental models of epilepsy support the proposed involvement of inflammation in epilepsy. Key mediators of this process include, among others: interleukin (IL) -1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, adhesion molecules and component of complement. Recent advances suggest the involvement of specific inflammatory pathways in the pathogenesis of seizures in patients with pharmacoresistant temporal lobe epilepsy, highlighting the potential for new therapeutic strategies. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on the relationship between inflammatory mediators and epilepsy. We also describe experimental and clinical evidence of inflammation in epilepsy with special emphasis on clinical aspects once the epileptogenic focus has been resected. Further insight into the complex role of inflammation in epileptogenesis may provide new treatment options.