Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and especially FTIR spectroscopic imaging are suitable in the plant analysis. With these techniques, a distinction not only of different plant species, but also of various ingredients within a plant is possible. FTIR spectroscopic imaging enables molecular imaging of complex botanical samples and therefore the detection and characterization of the molecular components of biological tissue. Based on the absorption of IR radiation by vibrational transitions in covalent bonds, the FTIR spectroscopic imaging technique offers the major advantage of the acquisition of local molecular expression profiles, while maintaining the topographic integrity of the tissue by avoiding time-consuming extraction, purification and separation steps. In the present study, it is demonstrated that FTIR spectroscopy enables the distinction of various plant species and FTIR spectroscopic imaging combined with chemometric data analysis enables one to gain a more distinct picture concerning morphology and distribution of active ingredients. In addition, initial evaluations of a three-dimensional distribution of ingredients of various plant roots are shown.