Apolipoprotein AIV (apo AIV) is a protein synthesized by the human intestine. The synthesis and secretion of apo AIV are stimulated by fat absorption. In 1992, Fujimoto et al.  first demonstrated that apo AIV is a satiety signal secreted by the small intestine following the ingestion of a lipid meal. This initial observation was followed by a number of studies supporting apo AIV;s role as a satiety signal. This review article discusses the regulation of synthesis of apo AIV in the small intestine as well as the hypothalamus. In addition, the evidence that apo AIV is a satiety factor and its role of apo AIV in diet induced obesity will be discussed. We hope this review will serve as a catalyst to promote apo AIV research in the future. With most of the required reagents available, e.g., the apo AIV knockout and transgenic animals and apo AIV antibodies, the next few years should bring considerable new information on the function of apo AIV.