There is heightened interest in the field of stroke recovery as there is need for agents that would prevent the debilitating effects of the disorder, thereby tremendously reducing the societal and economic costs associated with it. In this study, the isolation of two flavonoids - quercetin-3-O-galactoside (1) and quercetin-3-O-arabinoside (2) - from Rumex aquaticus (western dock) and their neuroprotective effects were reported in the oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) model of in vitro ischemia using rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cell line. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethyl-acetate extract of Rumex aquaticus L. afforded the isolation of compounds 1 and 2. The structures of compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic analyses (UV, mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Both compounds were isolated for the first time from this species. In the course of the pharmacological experiments it was detected that these flavonoids at 10 µM concentration significantly improved cell survival in the oxygen-glucose deprivation model of ischemia. Moreover, they also increased neurite outgrowth in differentiated PC12 cells subjected to ischemic insult. Investigations on the cellular mechanism for the observed effect revealed that compound 1 (10 µM) enhances the expression of synaptophysin - a marker of synapses, and an indicator of synaptic plasticity. Rapid restoration of neurological function following injury is paramount to the prevention of debilitating consequences of ischemic stroke. This combination of neuroprotection and neuritogenic potential could be particularly useful in the recovery phase of stroke.