Patients of Tuberculosis have poor treatment outcome with high mortality. Immunodeficiency appears to be an important risk factor in the development of multi drug resistance (MDR) and extensively drug resistance (XDR) tuberculosis. Mesenchymal stromal cell (MSCs) having immunomodulatory effect, have been used as adjunct autologous treatment. Thereby, it helps in transforming chronic inflammation into productive immune response. Stem cells therapy is based on the principle, that it migrates to the site of injury and forms tissue specific cell type that can replace the damaged tissue. Autologous MSCs have been used as an adjunct treatment in MDR TB in the lungs for accelerating clearance of pathogenic bacteria and early recovery. It appears to be a promising procedure for enhancing the efficacy of anti-TB therapy in MDR and XDR subjects.