A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) control the localization of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) by tethering PKA to distinct cellular compartments. Through additional direct proteinprotein interactions with PKA substrates and other signaling molecules they form multi-protein complexes. Thereby, AKAPs regulate the access of PKA to its substrates in a temporal and spatial manner as well as the local crosstalk of cAMP/PKA with other signaling pathways. Due to the increasing information on their molecular functioning and three-dimensional structures, and their emerging roles in the development of diseases, AKAPs move into the focus as potential drug targets. Targeting AKAP dependent protein-protein interactions for interference with local signal processing inside cells potentially allows for the development of therapeutics with high selectivity and fewer side effects.