Vaccines have been described as “weapons of mass protection”. The eradication of many diseases is testament to their utility and effectiveness. Nevertheless, many vaccine preventable diseases remain prevalent because of political and economic barriers. Additionally, the effects of immaturity and old age, therapies that incapacitate the adaptive immune system and the multitude of strategies evolved by pathogens to evade immediate or sustained recognition by the mammalian immune system are barriers to the effectiveness of existing vaccines or development of new vaccines. In the front line of defence against the pervasiness of infection are the elements of the innate immune system. Innate immunity is under studied and poorly appreciated. However, in the first days after entry of a pathogen into the body, our entire protective response is dependant upon the various elements of our innate immune repertoire. In spite of its place as our initial defence against infection, attention is only now turning to strategies which enhance or supplement innate immunity. This review examines the need for and potential of innate immune therapies.