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Current Genomics


ISSN (Print): 1389-2029
ISSN (Online): 1875-5488

MicroRNAs in Myeloid Hematological Malignancies

Author(s): Maria Ciccone and George Adrian Calin

Volume 16, Issue 5, 2015

Page: [336 - 348] Pages: 13

DOI: 10.2174/138920291605150710122815

Price: $65


MicroRNAs are 19-24 nucleotides noncoding RNAs which silence modulate the expression of target genes by binding to the messenger RNAs. Myeloid malignancies include a broad spectrum of acute and chronic disorders originating from from the clonal transformation of a hematopoietic stem cell. Specific genetic abnormalities may define myeloid malignancies, such as translocation t(9;22) that represent the hallmark of chronic myeloid leukemia. Although next-generation sequencing provided new insights in the genetic characterization and pathogenesis of myeloid neoplasms, the molecular mechanisms underlying myeloid neoplasms are lacking in most cases. Recently, several studies have demonstrated that the expression levels of specific miRNAs may vary among patients with myeloid malignancies compared with healthy individuals and partially unveiled how miRNAs participate in the leukemic transformation process. Finally, in vitro experiments and pre-clinical model provided preliminary data of the safety and efficacy of miRNA inhibitory molecules, opening new avenue in the treatment of myeloid hematological malignancies.

Keywords: miRNAs, Acute myeloid leukemia, Myelodysplastic syndrome, Myeloproliferative neoplasms.

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