Bone has multiple functions, both morphologically and physiologically, and it frequently features in the pathological condition, including fracture and osteoporosis. For bone regeneration therapy, the regulation of osteoblast differentiation is important. MicroRNA (miRNA)s are short noncoding RNA which regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. MiRNAs play an important role not only in a variety of other cellular processes including differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis but also in the pathogenesis of human diseases. Recently, miRNAs have been known to participate in osteoblast differentiation by regulating several signaling pathways including transcription factors. New insight into the mechanism during osteogenes is affected by miRNAs has been gained. Moreover, therapeutic trials for bone diseases including osteoporosis, fracture and bone defects targeting miRNAs have been examined in animal models. MiRNA therapy will enable development of a bone regeneration therapy.