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Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry


ISSN (Print): 1871-5206
ISSN (Online): 1875-5992

Implication of Unfolded Protein Response and Autophagy in the Treatment of BRAF Inhibitor Resistant Melanoma

Author(s): Xiao-Xiao Meng, Hong-Xi Xu, Mu Yao, Qihan Dong and Xu Dong Zhang

Volume 16, Issue 3, 2016

Page: [291 - 298] Pages: 8

DOI: 10.2174/1871520615666150930105906

Price: $65


The continuous activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascade, typified by the BRAFV600E mutation, is one of the key alterations in melanoma. Accordingly, two BRAF inhibitors (BRAFi), vemurafenib and dabrafenib are utilized to treat melanoma and resulted in an excellent clinical outcome. However, the clinical success is not long-lasting, and the BRAFi resistance and disease progression inevitably occurs in nearly all patients. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced unfolded protein response and autophagy have emerged as potential pro-survival mechanisms adopted by melanoma cells in response to BRAFi. In this review, we discuss the role of unfolded protein response and autophagy that are implicated in the development of BRAFi-resistant melanoma and the corresponding strategy aiming at overcoming the intractable clinical problem.

Keywords: Autophagy, BRAF inhibitor, ER stress, melanoma, unfolded protein response.

Graphical Abstract

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