Inflammation is the fundamental protective response; however disordered immuno-response can cause chronic human disease, including cancer. Inflammatory cells and mediators are essential to the tumor microenvironment and dissection of this complex molecular and cellular milieu may elucidate a connection between cancer and inflammation and help to identify potential novel therapeutic targets. Thus, focusing on transcription factor NF-κB and E2F1 in inflammation-associated cancer is urgent. NF-κB activation is prevalent in carcinomas, mainly driven by inflammatory cytokines in the tumor microenvironment. E2F1 is also involved in regulating immune responses. Understanding the crosstalk between the two pathways may contribute to the development of novel anti-cancer drugs.