Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a mature methodology that has been widely used for the evaluation of brain gliomas. Conventional MR imaging can provide morphometric characterization of gliomas, whereas proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) provides metabolite information for gliomas non-invasively in vivo. In the application to brain gliomas, proton MRS plays an important role in diagnosis, differential diagnosis, classification, evaluation, treatment planning and prognostic evaluation, and monitoring response to therapy. Over the past more than three decades, both the MRS techniques and their applications in brain gliomas have experienced remarkable proliferation. The aim of this article is to introduce the technique, the metabolites and review its clinical applications in brain gliomas.