Background: Silent myocardial ischemia is a recognized but suboptimally studied condition in patients with and without known coronary artery disease. Limited work has focused on the association between silent myocardial ischemia and future prognosis however the majority of these analyses have focused mostly on male cohorts. As signs and symptoms of myocardial ischemia are known to be different in women, it is important to discuss and highlight any differences in association between silent myocardial ischemia and adverse cardiovascular outcomes based on gender. Methods: The aim of this review is to summarize the current literature available discussing silent myocardial ischemia and potential gender differences. We searched English language studies on PUBMED and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from the database start dates to November 2015. Conclusion: As data on the presence of silent myocardial ischemia in women is limited, whether a differential association based on gender between this condition and cardiovascular prognosis remains unknown. Future studies should target women especially those without epicardial coronary disease and suspected coronary microvascular dysfunction.