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Current HIV Research


ISSN (Print): 1570-162X
ISSN (Online): 1873-4251

Research Article

Conjugated Linoleic Acid Isomers Exert Differential Effects on an Adipocyte Model of HIV-associated Lipodystrophy

Author(s): Cathriona R. Loonam*, Sandra D. O'Dell, Paul A. Sharp and Anne Mullen

Volume 15, Issue 1, 2017

Page: [46 - 55] Pages: 10

DOI: 10.2174/1570162X14666161207125948

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Background: HIV-associated lipodystrophy is associated with decreased expression of PPAR-γ in adipose tissue. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers (cis9, trans11 and trans10, cis12) are putative PPAR-γ agonists, but have not previously been investigated in the context of HIVassociated lipodystrophy.

Method: 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes were differentiated in the presence of ritonavir (20 μM as per previous experimental models) and 100 μM cis9,trans11, trans10,cis12 or vehicle control, DMSO. Microarray analysis, RT-PCR, DNA binding ELISA and Oil Red O staining were used to investigate adipocyte gene expression and binding, protein secretion and triglyceride storage.

Results: trans10, cis12 + ritonavir altered the expression of 2160 gene transcripts greater than 1.5-fold compared with control, while 257 gene transcripts were altered by cis9,trans11 + ritonavir (P<0.001). trans10,cis12 + ritonavir down-regulated Pparg (–1.55) and Adipoq (-2.95), as well as differentiation (Fcor (-4.78-fold), Arl4a (-4.84), Itga6 (-2.45), Id4 (-2.01)) and triglyceride storage genes (Mrap (- 8.25), Scd1 (-4.34), Lipin1 (-2.52)). Changes in Adipoq were confirmed by RT-PCR (P=0.038) and adiponectin secretion by ELISA (P= 0.003). cis9,trans11 + ritonavir increased PPAR-γ nuclear binding to its gene response element (P=0.038). Both isomers increased triglyceride storage in the presence of ritonavir (P<0.001).

Conclusion: In the presence of ritonavir, trans10, cis12 appears to be detrimental, while cis9, trans11 was beneficial and may mediate its effects via PPAR-γ. Further research is required to determine the potential role of CLA isomers as therapeutic agents in the management of HIV-associated lipodystrophy.

Keywords: Antiretroviral therapy, conjugated linoleic acid, HIV-associated lipodystrophy, PPAR-γ, ritonavir.

Graphical Abstract

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