The aim of the present review was to summarize research methods, benefits, recommendations, current trends and determinants of physical activity (PA) with a focus on women. In the research methods section, models, difficulties of measurements and assessment methods of PA emphasizing questionnaires were included. The beneficial role of PA was presented separately for the various forms of PA (e.g. leisure, school physical education). The recommendations section presented the last guidelines provided by international organizations for optimal PA levels. The section on current trends is aimed to examine to what extent the abovementioned guidelines were met by various populations during childhood, adolescence and adulthood. Lastly, the determinants of PA were presented: school, educational background, periodicity, tracking during childhood and from childhood to adolescence, structured PA programs, social support and companion, facilities and equipment, socio-economic status, promotion and interventions, environment and neighbourhood, ethnicity and family and genetics.