Background: Ischemia is a multifactorial disorder in which several genetic and environmental factors are involved. Platelets are the major causative agents of this disease because their elevated activity and aggregation would increase the risk of atherosclerosis and thrombosis, as well as ischemia. A number of polymorphisms in platelet receptors can increase the risk of ischemia and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been detected in platelets. In addition, polymorphisms in other genes have been shown to cause platelet adhesion and aggregation that plays a role in ischemia. Patients respond differently to anti-platelet drugs which are used to treat patients with ischemia. Polymorphisms affect patients' responses to anti-platelet drugs, for instance, by increasing platelet activity and causing resistance of platelets to these drugs. Diagnosis of these polymorphisms can greatly contribute to better prediction of prognosis and response to treatment of patients, leading to more effective therapeutic strategies and a proper approach to ischemia.
Conclusion: In this review, we have evaluated the role of polymorphisms involved in platelet activation and development of ischemia.