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Infectious Disorders - Drug Targets


ISSN (Print): 1871-5265
ISSN (Online): 2212-3989

Research Article

Symptoms of Toxicity and Plasma Cytochrome c Levels in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infected Patients Receiving Anti-retroviral Therapy in Ghana: A Cross-sectional Study

Author(s): Eric A. Mensah, Bismark Sarfo, Evelyn Y. Bonney, Prince K. Parbie and Augustine Ocloo*

Volume 20, Issue 1, 2020

Page: [88 - 97] Pages: 10

DOI: 10.2174/1871526518666181102112010

Price: $65


Background: Side effects and toxicity have posed a threat to the positive contribution of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) in the management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Symptoms of mitochondrial toxicity including myopathy, pancreatitis, hyperlipidaemia and lactic acidosis are found among HIVinfected patients on ART. To date, there is not a reliable biomarker for monitoring ART-related mitochondrial toxicity. Plasma level of Cytochrome c (Cyt-c) has been proposed as a potential biomarker for ART-related toxicity due to its strong association with apoptosis.

Objective: The present study assessed toxicity and level of plasma Cyt-c among HIV-infected patients receiving ART in Ghana.

Methods: A total of eighty (80) HIV patients were recruited into the study. Demographic data were obtained from personal interview and medical records. Plasma samples were screened for toxicity from sixty (60) participants due to limited resources, and plasma Cyt-c levels were determined using ELISA. Data were analyzed using Stata version 13.

Results: Out of the 60 participants, 11 (18.3%) were found with symptoms of myopathy, 12 (20%) with pancreatitis, 21 (35%) with hyperlipidaemia and 36 (60%) with at least one of the symptoms. The concentration of plasma Cyt-c was higher (0.122 ng/ml) in patients with toxicity than in those without toxicity (0.05 ng/ml), though the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.148). There was a weak correlation between plasma Cyt-c level and duration of ART (Spearman rho = 0.02, p = 0.89).

Conclusion: This study, therefore, demonstrated a high prevalence of ART-related toxicity and high levels of Cyt-c in HIV-infected patients in support of the argument that plasma Cyt-c levels are potential biomarkers for determining ART-related toxicity in HIV patients.

Keywords: ART, Toxicity, plasma cytochrome c, AIDS, mitochondrial toxicity, HIV-infection, hyperlipidaemia.

Graphical Abstract
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