Background: The incidence of diabetes mellitus has significantly increased in the last two decades. Gestational diabetes mellitus, GDM, is a complication that affects both pregnant women and newborn babies. Pregnant women that are diagnosed with GDM are 7 times more likely to be diagnosed with type II diabetes mellitus. In addition, infants born by GDM mothers are at higher risk of developing diabetes mellitus in the future.
Objective: The study aims to review the literature on the diet control in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus.
Results: Controlling blood sugar within the normal range during pregnancy can decrease negative pregnancy outcomes. However, most pregnant women with GDM cannot control their blood sugar within the normal range because of a lack of knowledge and skill in selecting appropriate foods. They also often experience inconsistency in their diet control behavior Most pregnant women worry about gaining too much weight, and most pregnant women with GDM have to learn how to choose their food properly in terms of both nutrients and quantity in order to control their blood sugar levels within the normal range.
Conclusion: Diet control during pregnancy is one way to prevent the negative consequences of GDM for both mothers and infants. The food proportion for pregnant women with gestational diabetes is CHO: PRO: FAT = 50: 20:30 and also to consume an appropriate amount of vitamins and minerals and water each day.