Generic placeholder image

Current Drug Discovery Technologies


ISSN (Print): 1570-1638
ISSN (Online): 1875-6220

Review Article

Nanoparticles and Its Implications in HIV/AIDS Therapy

Author(s): Victor B. Oti*

Volume 17, Issue 4, 2020

Page: [448 - 456] Pages: 9

DOI: 10.2174/1570163816666190620111652

Price: $65


The use of Antiretroviral drugs in treating HIV/ AIDS patients has enormously increased their life spans with serious disadvantages. The virus infection still remains a public health problem worldwide with no cure and vaccine for the viral agent until now. The use of nanoparticles (NPs) for the treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS is an emerging technology of the 21st century. NPs are solid and colloid particles with 10 nm to <1000 nm size range; although, less than 200 nm is the recommended size for nanomedical usage. There are NPs with therapeutic capabilities such as liposomes, micelles, dendrimers and nanocapsules. The particle enters the body mainly via oral intake, direct injection and inhalation. It has been proven to have potentials of advancing the prevention and treatment of the viral agent. Certain NPs have been shown to have selftherapeutic activity for the virus in vitro. Strategies that are novel are emerging which can be used to improve nanotechnology, such as genetic treatment and immunotherapy. In this review, nanoparticles, the types and its characteristics in drug delivery were discussed. The light was furthermore shed on its implications in the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, nanotechnology, HIV, AIDS, therapy, implications, ARTs.

Graphical Abstract
Khan I, Saeed K, Khan I. Nanoparticles: properties, application and toxicities Arabian Journal of Chemistry 2017.5: 011.
Otieno MO. Why novel nanoparticle-based delivery platforms hold key for HIV/AIDS treatment and prevention? HIV/AIDS Res Treat 2015; 2(3): 81-5.
Wang AZ, Gu F, Zhang L, et al. Biofunctionalized targeted nanoparticles for therapeutic applications. Expert Opin Biol Ther 2008; 8(8): 1063-70.
[] [PMID: 18613759]
Rizvi SAA, Saleh AM. Applications of nanoparticle systems in drug delivery technology. Saudi Pharm J 2018; 26(1): 64-70.
[] [PMID: 29379334]
Allhoff F, Lin P, Moore D. What is nanotechnology and why does it matter?: from science to ethics. Chichester, UK, Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell 2010; p. x.
Nanotechnology PT. In Encyclopaedia Britannica Deluxe Edition. Chicago, IL, USA: Encyclopaedia Britannica 2010.
McNeil SE. Unique benefits of nanotechnology to drug delivery and diagnostics. Methods Mol Biol 2011; 697: 3-8.
[] [PMID: 21116949]
Wong HL, Chattopadhyay N, Wu XY, Bendayan R. Nanotechnology applications for improved delivery of antiretroviral drugs to the brain. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2010; 62(4-5): 503-17.
[] [PMID: 19914319]
Moss JA. HIV/AIDS Review. Radiol Technol 2013; 84(3): 247-67.
[PMID: 23322863]
Jayant R, Nair M. Nanotechnology for the treatment of NeuroAIDS. Journal of Nanomedicine Research 2016; 3(1): 00047.
Richman DD, Margolis DM, Delaney M, Greene WC, Hazuda D, Pomerantz RJ. The challenge of finding a cure for HIV infection. Science 2009; 323(5919): 1304-7.
[] [PMID: 19265012]
Kim PS, Read SW. Nanotechnology and HIV: potential applications for treatment and prevention. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2010; 2(6): 693-702.
[] [PMID: 20860050]
Edagwa BJ, Zhou T, McMillan JM, Liu XM, Gendelman HE. Development of HIV reservoir targeted long acting nanoformulated antiretroviral therapies. Curr Med Chem 2014; 21(36): 4186-98.
[] [PMID: 25174930]
Singh L, Kruger HG, Maguire GEM. The role of nanotechnology in the treatment of viral infec-tions 2017.
Parboosing R, Maguire GEM, Govender P, Kruger HG. Nanotechnology and the treatment of HIV infection. Viruses 2012; 4(4): 488-520.
[] [PMID: 22590683]
Amiji MM, Vyas TK, Shah LK. Role of nanotechnology in HIV/AIDS treatment: potential to overcome the viral reservoir challenge. Discov Med 2006; 6(34): 157-62.
[PMID: 17234137]
Kumar L, Verma S, Prasad DN, Bhardwaj A, Vaidya B, Jain AK. Nanotechnology: a magic bullet for HIV AIDS treatment. Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 2015; 43(2): 71-86.
[] [PMID: 24564348]
Pennap GR, Oti VB, Alaribe GA, Ajegena AS, Galleh RP. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C viruses among human immunodeficiency virus infected patients accessing healthcare in Federal Medical Centre, Keffi, Nigeria. Journal of Advances in Microbiology 2017; 3(4): 1-6.
Bass E, Feuer C, Warren M. AIDS vaccine research and advocacy: an update. BETA 2009; 21(2): 24-30.
[PMID: 19517626]
Crabtree-Ramírez B, Villasís-Keever A, Galindo-Fraga A, del Río C, Sierra-Madero J. Effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) among HIV-infected patients in Mexico. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2010; 26(4): 373-8.
[] [PMID: 20377418]
Mallipeddi R, Rohan LC. Progress in antiretroviral drug delivery using nanotechnology. Int J Nanomedicine 2010; 5: 533-47.
[PMID: 20957115]
Mamo T, Moseman EA, Kolishetti N, et al. Emerging nanotechnology approaches for HIV/AIDS treatment and prevention. Nanomedicine (Lond) 2010; 5(2): 269-85.
[] [PMID: 20148638]
Wilson N. Nanoparticles: Environmental problems or problem solvers? Bioscience 2018; 64(4): 241-6.
Govender T, Ojewole E, Naidoo P, Mackraj I. Polymeric nanoparticles for enhancing antiretroviral drug therapy. Drug Deliv 2008; 15(8): 493-501.
[] [PMID: 18720133]
Pattni BS, Chupin VV, Torchilin VP. New developments in liposomal drug delivery. Chem Rev 2015; 115(19): 10938-66.
[] [PMID: 26010257]
Gupta U, Jain NK. Non-polymeric nano-carriers in HIV/AIDS drug delivery and targeting. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2010; 62(4-5): 478-90.
[] [PMID: 19913579]
das Neves J. Amiji MM, Bahia MF, Sarmento B. Nanotechnology-based systems for the treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2010; 62(4-5): 458-77.
[] [PMID: 19914314]
Ma X, Wang D, Wu Y, et al. AIDS treatment with novel anti-HIV compounds improved by nanotechnology. AAPS J 2010; 12(3): 272-8.
[] [PMID: 20373061]
Vyas TK, Shah L, Amiji MM. Nanoparticulate drug carriers for delivery of HIV/AIDS therapy to viral reservoir sites. Expert Opin Drug Deliv 2006; 3(5): 613-28.
[] [PMID: 16948557]
Friedman AD, Claypool SE, Liu R. The smart targeting of nanoparticles. Curr Pharm Des 2013; 19(35): 6315-29.
[] [PMID: 23470005]
Petros RA, DeSimone JM. Strategies in the design of nanoparticles for therapeutic applications. Nat Rev Drug Discov 2010; 9(8): 615-27.
[] [PMID: 20616808]
Kovochich M, Marsden MD, Zack JA. Activation of latent HIV using drug-loaded nanoparticles. PLoS One 2011; 6(4) e18270
[] [PMID: 21483687]
Janib SM, Moses AS, MacKay JA. Imaging and drug delivery using theranostic nanoparticles. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2010; 62(11): 1052-63.
[] [PMID: 20709124]
Destache CJ. Chapter 12- Brain as an HIV sequestered site: Use of nanoparticles as a therapeutic option In: Prog Brain Res. 2009; 180: pp. 225-33.
[] [PMID: 20302837]
Park HS, Nam SH, Kim J, Shin HS, Suh YD, Hong KS. Clear-cut observation of clearance of sustainable upconverting nanoparticles from lymphatic system of small living mice. Sci Rep 2016; 6: 27407.
[] [PMID: 27265267]
Date AA, Destache CJ. A review of nanotechnological approaches for the prophylaxis of HIV/AIDS. Biomaterials 2013; 34(26): 6202-28.
[] [PMID: 23726227]
Kou L, Sun J, Zhai Y, He Z. The endocytosis and intracellular fate of nanomedicines: implication for rational design. Asian J Pharm Sci 2013; 8: 1-10.
Wan L, Zhang X, Pooyan S, et al. Optimizing size and copy number for PEG-fMLF (N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine) nanocarrier uptake by macrophages. Bioconjug Chem 2008; 19(1): 28-38.
[] [PMID: 18092743]
Copland MJ, Rades T, Davies NM, Baird MA. Lipid based particulate formulations for the delivery of antigen. Immunol Cell Biol 2005; 83(2): 97-105.
[] [PMID: 15748206]
Son GH, Lee BJ, Cho CW. Mechanisms of drug release from advanced drug formulations such as polymeric-based drug-delivery systems and lipid nanoparticles. J. Pharmaceut. Invest 2017.
Mura S, Nicolas J, Couvreur P. Stimuli-responsive nanocarriers for drug delivery. Nat Mater 2013; 12(11): 991-1003.
[] [PMID: 24150417]
Lee JH, Yeo Y. Controlled drug release from pharmaceutical nanocarriers. Chem Eng Sci 2015; 125: 75-84.
[] [PMID: 25684779]
Bourinbaiar AS, Root-Bernstein RS, Abulafia-Lapid R, et al. Therapeutic AIDS vaccines. Curr Pharm Des 2006; 12(16): 2017-30.
[] [PMID: 16787245]
Csaba N, Garcia-Fuentes M, Alonso MJ. Nanoparticles for nasal vaccination. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2009; 61(2): 140-57.
[] [PMID: 19121350]
Bråve A, Hinkula J, Cafaro A, et al. Candidate HIV-1 gp140DeltaV2, Gag and Tat vaccines protect against experimental HIV-1/MuLV challenge. Vaccine 2007; 25(39-40): 6882-90.
[] [PMID: 17707956]
Bawarski WE, Chidlowsky E, Bharali DJ, Mousa SA. Emerging nanopharmaceuticals. Nanomedicine (Lond) 2008; 4(4): 273-82.
[] [PMID: 18640076]
Watson DS, Huang Z, Szoka FCJ Jr. All-trans retinoic acid potentiates the antibody response in mice to a lipopeptide antigen adjuvanted with liposomal lipid A. Immunol Cell Biol 2009; 87(8): 630-3.
[] [PMID: 19597529]
Wagner A, Stiegler G, Vorauer-Uhl K, et al. One step membrane incorporation of viral antigens as a vaccine candidate against HIV. J Liposome Res 2007; 17(3-4): 139-54.
[] [PMID: 18027234]
Fairman J, Moore J, Lemieux M, et al. Enhanced in vivo immunogenicity of SIV vaccine candidates with cationic liposome-DNA complexes in a rhesus macaque pilot study. Hum Vaccin 2009; 5(3): 141-50.
[] [PMID: 18690014]
Letvin NL. Progress and obstacles in the development of an AIDS vaccine. Nat Rev Immunol 2006; 6(12): 930-9.
[] [PMID: 17124514]
Kawamura M, Wang X, Uto T, et al. Induction of dendritic cell-mediated immune responses against HIV-1 by antigen-capturing nanospheres in mice. J Med Virol 2005; 76(1): 7-15.
[] [PMID: 15778965]
Miyake A, Akagi T, Enose Y, et al. Induction of HIV-specific antibody response and protection against vaginal SHIV transmission by intranasal immunization with inactivated SHIV-capturing nanospheres in macaques. J Med Virol 2004; 73(3): 368-77.
[] [PMID: 15170630]
Wu Y, Navarro F, Lal A, et al. Durable protection from Herpes Simplex Virus-2 transmission following intravaginal application of siRNAs targeting both a viral and host gene. Cell Host Microbe 2009; 5(1): 84-94.
[] [PMID: 19154990]
Dou H, Grotepas CB, McMillan JM, et al. Macrophage delivery of nanoformulated antiretroviral drug to the brain in a murine model of neuroAIDS. J Immunol 2009; 183(1): 661-9.
[] [PMID: 19535632]
Spudich SS, Ances BM. Central nervous system complications of HIV infection. Top Antivir Med 2011; 19(2): 48-57.
[PMID: 21868822]
Rao KS, Ghorpade A, Labhasetwar V. Targeting anti-HIV drugs to the CNS. Expert Opin Drug Deliv 2009; 6(8): 771-84.
[] [PMID: 19566446]
Liu R, Kay BK, Jiang SY, Chen SF. Nanoparticle delivery: targeting and nonspecific binding. MRS Bull 2009; 34(6): 432-40.
Nowacek A, Gendelman HE. NanoART, neuroAIDS and CNS drug delivery. Nanomedicine (Lond) 2009; 4(5): 557-74.
[] [PMID: 19572821]
Khalil NM, Carraro E, Cótica LF, Mainardes RM. Potential of polymeric nanoparticles in AIDS treatment and prevention. Expert Opin Drug Deliv 2011; 8(1): 95-112.
[] [PMID: 21143001]
Garg M, Asthana A, Agashe HB, Agrawal GP, Jain NK. Stavudine-loaded mannosylated liposomes: in-vitro anti-HIV-I activity, tissue distribution and pharmacokinetics. J Pharm Pharmacol 2006; 58(5): 605-16.
[] [PMID: 16640829]
Chen Z, Mao R, Liu Y. Fullerenes for cancer diagnosis and therapy: preparation, biological and clinical perspectives. Curr Drug Metab 2012; 13(8): 1035-45.
[] [PMID: 22380017]

Rights & Permissions Print Cite
© 2024 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy