This chapter presents a synthesis of data regarding acute and chronic drugrelated lesions of the kidneys and urinary tract, as well as the urologic injuries that can result from diagnostic and/or therapeutic interventions. Reversible or irreversible renal injuries can be caused by prerenal, intrarenal or postrenal damage. Identification of the pathomechanism is mandatory for proper treatment of the side effects. Those drugs that are excreted through the kidneys can induce ischemic or obstructive lesions and can predispose the patient to stone formation. Analgesic nephropathy is a particular type of nephritis that can be reversible after drug cessation. Glomerulonephritis can be caused by several drugs, including vaccines, anti-inflammatory agents and beta blockers. Regarding surgical interventions, upper urinary tract deterioration can occur following direct injuries or as a consequence of iatrogenic lumbosacral spinal cord lesions. Complications relating to peritoneal dialysis are also presented in detail.
Keywords: Adverse drug reaction, Analgesic nephropathy, Azotemia, Cystitis, dialysis, Glomerulopathy, Hemolysis, Iatrogenic, Kidney, Lithiasis, Nephritis, Papillary necrosis, Percutaneous intervention, Urinary tract, Vasculitis.