Pharmacotherapeutic Management of Cardiovascular Disease Complications: A Textbook for Medical Students

Heart Failure

Author(s): A. Bharath Kumar and M.S. Umashankar

Pp: 124-145 (22)

DOI: 10.2174/9789811468216120010012

* (Excluding Mailing and Handling)


Heart failure is a multifaceted disease in which the heart is unable to reach the metabolic demands of the body. The heart failure associated with complex risk factors which include Hypertension, increased salt intake, obesity, diabetes, coronary artery disease alcohol, smoking are the strong risk factors for the development of heart failure. The poor blood circulation lowers the blood pumping to the ventricles and reduces the contraction of the myocardial cells leads to increase the risk of heart failure. The clinical manifestations of heart failure include cough, pedal edema, palpitations, shortness of breath, fatigue, weakness, which can increase the risk of heart failure. The electrocardiogram, chest x-ray, echocardiogram, treadmill test, coronary angiogram test can determine the severity of the cardiovascular disease. The medical management of heart failure includes prescribing diuretics, angiotensin receptor blockers, beta blockers, vasodilators, ACE inhibitors, and digoxin improve the health status of the disease patients and also lowers the future occurrence of heart diseases.

Keywords: Beta Blockers, Coronary Artery Disease, Diabetes Mellitus, Electrocardiogram, Heart Failure, Pedal Edema.

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