Head & Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) is a heterogeneous group of malignancies that collectively constitute a significant group of cancer worldwide. It affects not only the elderly patients but more so the middle age and the pediatric patient population. Around 90% of these tumors develop from the mucosal lining of the head and neck region i.e. Head & Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC). These mainly include oral cavity carcinoma, oropharyngeal carcinoma, hypopharyngeal carcinoma, laryngeal carcinoma, sinonasal carcinoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and salivary glands carcinomas. Different types of these carcinomas are prevalent at some geographic locations due to various environmental, dietary, social, and genetic factors. Head and neck cancers are critical as these affect many vital functions of the human being, such as breathing, eating, smell, hearing, and vision. Clinical and epidemiologic studies show aetio-pathological relation between chronic inflammation and cancer in several organs, including the Head and Neck region. A huge number of inflammatory mediators and markers have been identified and investigated in the current genomic era. Significant inflammatory biomarkers have a potential role not only in screening and prevention but also in treatment and assessing the prognosis of HNSCC. This chapter will highlight the recent facts, the discovery of evidence of the inflammation, and biomarkers for HNSCC.
Keywords: Alcohol and smoking, Biomarkers, Head and neck malignancy, HNSCC, Human papilloma virus, Immunoscore, Inflammation and cancer, Nasopharyngeal carcinoma, Oncogenic virus.