The chapter deals with diabetes overview, focuses on the relation of diet and diabetes, the conventional and non-conventional raw material for the development of foods for the diabetic. The chapter also discusses natural and synthetic sweeteners’ overview. Dietary approaches to produce food for diabetic consumers also are addressed, with special emphasis on foods with insulin-secreting, insulin-sensitizing, and insulin-mimetic properties. Also, the terms: glycemic index, insulin index, and glycemic load are defined. And finally, some recipes for diabetic consumers are recommended.