Treatment of patients with painful multiple bone metastases is a complicated
clinical task. Radionuclide therapy is one of the solutions, which is used to achieve the
long reduction of pain syndrome and to significantly improve the quality of life.
However, the mechanism of action of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals suggests not
only pain control but the antitumor effect as well. In early clinical studies of safety and
efficacy, single administrations of the most common bone-seeking
radiopharmaceuticals did not demonstrate any benefit in overall survival, but individual
extraordinary tumor regressions were reported. Repeated administrations and
combination with other treatment modalities can help to gain a statistically significant
increase in overall survival. In this chapter, the history of bone-targeted radionuclide
therapy in Russia is reviewed.