Mitochondrial DNA and the Immuno-inflammatory Response: New Frontiers to Control Specific Microbial Diseases

An Auspicious Bacterium: How Mitochondria can be Beneficial to the Innate Immunity through Aerobic Exercises

Author(s): Dilvani Oliveira Santos*, Arthur Willkomm Kazniakowski, Anna Fernandes Silva Chagas do Nascimento, Laura Brandão Martins, Sourou Credo Francisco Justus Zinsou, Rodolfo Avila and Maria Elena Samar

Pp: 1-21 (21)

DOI: 10.2174/9789815051698122030005

* (Excluding Mailing and Handling)


Mitochondria are highly relevant organelles with regard to their unique function in generating energy and contributing to metabolism within the cell. Furthermore, recent studies suggest that they might have an influence on the innate immune and inflammatory responses, thus affecting antiviral immunity (as example: Zika virus (ZIKV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), dengue virus and SARS-CoV-2 virus) and antibacterial immunity as well (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium tuberculosis). Therefore, this chapter aims at bringing a relevant debate about the role of mitochondria and their multifunctional capacity. We intend to discuss the complexity of mitochondrial metabolism, especially during aerobic physical exercises, which causes the modulation of the gene expression of proteins that lead to mitochondrial proliferation and, thus, promote health. In addition, considering the injuries caused by hypoxia, this chapter also stresses the enormous potential of mitochondria to enable the survival of eukaryotic cells by allowing them to turn to aerobic respiration, as shown in previous scientific studies. In conclusion, this chapter points out the importance of mitochondrial biogenesis (both natural and stimulated biogenesis by aerobic exercise) and the benefits this organelle brings to the health, arguing that they go far beyond cellular respiration and oxidative phosphorylation.

Keywords: Aerobic exercises, Immunoinflammatory response, Mitochondrial biogenesis

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